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Richard morose ladbrokes betting

Groups of the latter class lost money and fortunes long before the fashion took any general hold of very considerable numbers of the aristocratic and wealthy classes. Betting took place principally at the race meetings. It was not until ten years later that a regular market for J credit betting was established by the institution of Tattersall's Subscription Eooms ; and, that the original purpose of the grand-stand was only for viewing the races, is made clear by the contem- porary records.

At Ascot Heath, a separate wooden shed had to be used by those who wished to bet. Six years later, complaints having been made of the betting market being held in the grand-stand at Doncaster, to the annoyance of the spectators, especially ladies, arrangements were decided upon for the future to form an enclosure for betting outside the stand. Similar precautions had previously been taken at Goodwood. Betting was transacted at Newmarket at betting posts, where rings were formed on the heath.

Betting was also carried on away from the courses at premises belonging to TattersalFs in Lon- don which, however, in consisted merely of a small apartment, with only members on the books , and in the vicinity of the course at the Newmarket Subscription Booms, where there were only 57 members, other than those belonging to the Jockey Club.

There were also special rooms hired at Doncaster, York, and Liverpool for mem- bers of either of the above clubs to bet in. A chronicle informs us, in the reign of William the Fourth, that although the number of spectators at Newmarket seldom exceeded , mostly of the highest classes, the majority on horseback, the turf was becoming more popular in and the attendances larger. It will thus be understood that the general public, for a long time entirely excluded from the privileged betting circle, could only take part in the business by the connivance of some of the pro- fessional men having the entree.

This caused many complaints by the old habitues, and it was found necessary, in view of the dubious standing of some of the new-comers, to modify the credit system, and to insist upon daily settlements. The cash gaming of the race-course indulged in by the great bulk of race-goers was not betting, but was carried on by means of roulette - tables, lotteries, sweepstakes, and other adjuncts of the gambling- booth.

The Select Committee of the House of Com- mons , in reporting against the miscellaneous race-course gambling, clearly did not anticipate that the grand -stands and enclosures would take the place of these other methods, and become sources of great profit as places used for gambling by bet- ting, and that the abolition of booths would merely result in the transfer of the gamblers to the en- closures or rings, as may be seen by the following paragraph from their report : — Your Committee cannot consider the establishment of gambling-booths on race-courses as in any way an essential accompaniment to racing, and they feel that they cannot too strongly express their opinion that all such practices ought to be entirely and universally dis- continued.

If there is in any place a real demand for races, money enough is sure to be subscribed for plates and stakes to be run for, and if at any place sufficient sums for these purposes cannot be raised without the aid of gambling-booth rents, the races at such places had much better be left off.

For years before the middle of the nineteenth century, many of the proprietors of public-houses or persons in collusion with them , and of specially hired offices in the great towns, had been in the habit of using their premises for the purpose of accepting betting money, and, after a time, relations were established between them and some of the credit-betting professionals belong- ing to the clubs and subscription rooms.

This was how betting by those away from the race-course continued, and even increased in volume, notwith- standing the effect of the Betting House Act in , which, immediate as it was with regard to these betting offices, was partially neutralised by the change of location brought about when the new railways were beginning to convey large num- bers at a moderate expense to the course, and by the laying on of the telegraph offering the means to others of rapid communication with the betting men at the race meetings, for gambling purposes, by those unable to make the journey.

The time was one of transition, and legislators appear to have overlooked the fact that the miscel- THE EXTENT OF GAMBLING 25 laneous booth gambling having been previously suppressed, their enactment putting an end to ready-money betting establishments, then chiefly in towns, would only result in their virtual transfer to every race-course and so-called club.

There had been a great deal of irregular and surreptitious cash betting upon the race-course, but it was not a generally recognised system. It was one that had gradually grown. The bookmaker with a satchel taking money in advance and giving tickets, was unknown on our race-courses in the forties.

It was, however, to laxity in applying the law that the ready-money, or deposit, system owed its subsequent continuation and increase in volume, for there is no doubt whatever that the Act of was considered at that time to apply to the evil in race-course enclosures as elsewhere.

A recognised contemporary authority wrote : " The fatal facility induced by the open deposit system is nipped in the bud " ; and another, " Cash betting stopped upon the passing of the Act. Entrance fees to the enclosures promised to become their financial backbone, and to enable them to add enormously to the value of the stakes and cups. And it was found that to. An Account of the Present Increase Betting It is not necessary to follow in any detail, beyond this period, the growth of horse-racing, and the practice of betting connected with it which had now become a national foible.

The foregoing sketch was desirable for the understanding of the subject, owing to the absence of any other authentic con- tinuous record, and by the fact that the masses of the nation had not become a gambling people as compared with foreign populations, either in other ways or in this, until long after the introduction of the sport.

The above review of the past takes us up to the year mentioned , when the failure of a prosecution, owing to the interest or prejudice of the Newmarket magistrates, for permitting ready- money betting in the rings, finally opened the flood-gates of the system, which now, aided by railway, telegraph, and press, spread over the country in an ever -increasing volume, and from tens of thousands of sources in city, town, and village drew its main increment from the money- making and wage -earning classes.

The bookmakers multiplied. The wealthy and the idle squandered fortunes on them; the toilers brought their sovereigns and half-crowns in myriads. A large portion of the press battened upon the advertisements of prosperous betting men. Servants of the state in high legal positions, devotees of the race-course, and others of subordinate station, gave decisions as to the construction of the law so framed as to put no check upon the spread of professional betting ; and horse-racing became a trade instead of a sport.

The enormous money interests honeycombed it with dishonesty. Sometimes owners, and more often trainers, jockeys, touts, and betting men, arranged which horse should win, according to the exigencies of the betting market ; and, not unfrequently, poison played its part when it was necessary, from the trade point of view, to prevent an animal from first passing the winning - post.

The very atmo- sphere of the turf was pestiferous ; it corrupted everything of it and connected with it. The pretence that it was any longer a noble sport was only countenanced by the fashion of titled people patronising it. The ancient plea as to its improv- ing the breed of horses became a byword as the number of yearling races increased and the length of the courses was reduced.

The twenty or so book- makers of the beginning of the century grew into an army of twenty thousand. Many made fortunes; nearly all made a living. Those who confined their operations to the race-courses might be said to do less harm than those who offered facilities away from the course, only that they usually acted in relation to these latter as the wholesale dealer does for the retailer.

It must be remembered that the individuals in the streets are merely the journey- men of well-to-do bookmakers. During last year, amongst the many thousands of fines for the offence, evidence was given — and there are scores of similar cases — that a lad of 16 was one of several servants of a master bookmaker, who mapped out the district amongst his subordinates.

From unofficial but perfectly reliable sources, hundreds of items of information quite as striking as the above could be given, but they are unneces- sary in view of the statements of officials and others made before the Select Committee of the House of Lords The evidence proved also that it was not confined to men, but had spread to women and children ; that it caused the neglect of wives and children, disregard for parents, and carelessness and indifference in their occupations, frequently result- ing in embezzlement from their employers ; that this professional betting was largely responsible for corrupting the police, for turning athletic sports into a trade, and for a general neglect of duty amongst those who indulged in it; that all efforts to cope with it under the existing law had failed to restrict it to any extent, including those of the trade unions, some of which exclude from official positions any one known to be given to betting.

Excepting those witnesses who in some way, direct or indirect, were interested in the professional betting business, there was a volume of convincing testimony as to its baneful effects. A former prison chaplain, through whose hands in ten years a hundred thousand persons had passed, said that in one jail a whole wing had been set aside for prisoners in connection with betting, which was now increasing more than ever.

Several years subsequently to this a carefully kept unofficial 30 BETTING AND GAMBLING register for Great Britain which is probably a very imperfect one in the sense of much under- stating the numbers from the difficulty of com- piling a comprehensive list by private effort showed that in the previous five and a half years no less than 80 cases of suicide, embezzle- ments, and bankruptcies had appeared upon the records of the Courts owing to professional betting, and it must be pointed out that probably not nearly all the embezzlements resulted in prosecu- tion.

The Mayor of Salford, for instance, told an influential meeting at Manchester that he was responsible for the conduct of a large business in which several cases of embezzlements had been discovered, but that in no instance had a prosecution taken place. A continuation of these statistics for the three following years, as quoted by the Archbishop of Canterbury in the House of Lords on May 3, , adds to the significance of the figures by revealing that not only has the evil gone on, but that the embezzlements have increased at the rate of 40 per cent.

With regard to the allegation that betting was often pleaded as an untruthful excuse in the Police Courts, the senior Metropolitan Magistrate, who spoke with twenty -five years' experience, and others averred that this statement had been investigated, and proved to have very little foundation ; in the very great majority of cases the magistrates having come to the conclusion that betting was at the root of embezzlements.

Testimony as to the corruption of the police, rendered possible by the large profits of the bookmakers, and the great proportion of defaulting Post Office employees owing their ruin to the betting system, seriously supple- mented the main evidence. And the inquiries since set on foot at New Scotland Yard with regard to the Metropolitan Police give a pointed significance to the revelations made. The gigantic monetary interest of the Post Office in the betting system appears in one item of the evidence of Mr.

Lamb, the secretary, who said that in the previous Sep- tember the department had sent 82 telegraphists to the Doncaster race meeting, who dealt with 30, private telegrams of persons attending the races, besides , words of racing news for the press. Betting used to be chiefly confined to the large! A Chairman of Committees of the House of Commons, in joining the society organised to deal with the evil, stated that his doing so was owing to finding that it had penetrated to the rustic neighbourhood adjoining his Devon- shire home.

The strange increase in village tele- grams on race days has become very noticeable, and charges of tampering with messages to cheat bookmakers are becoming quite common. As to the condition of the race-courses them- selves, from the ruffianism of the professional betting men and their hangers-on, interesting revelations were made before the close of the nineteenth century by the efforts of one of the great London daily newspapers.

It is not needful to quote the com- ments drawn forth by the journals friendly to reform, as those in favour of the institution of the Turf are sufficiently pungent. A few of these will suffice. Thus The Field, August 20, : — Those unacquainted with race-courses must stand aghast as they read the extraordinary tale of misdoing that is unfolded day by day. A body of miscreants who are prepared to stop at nothing in the way of violence so long as they attain their object, and care not the least if they leave their victim injured for life, as is sometimes the case.

The scum that formerly attended the prize-ring has turned its attention to the most promising substitute. It depends entirely upon the efficiency and vigilance of the management and those it employs by way of guardians, whether or not the rings are invaded by those who have only to be numerically strong enough to do as they please with the respect- able element.

The meeting at Epsom is then criticised, but we must devote our little space to the following, also from TJie Field : — The goings-on at Brighton, both on the course and in the town, have reached such a pitch that we have dis- continued sending a representative to report the racing. This has been the happy hunting-ground of the thief for very many years, but we doubt if matters ever reached the pitch they did this year, the gangs of pickpockets working with such impunity that an inoffensive visitor was bludgeoned on the head actually in the very entrance to Tattersall's ring.

Small wonder, then, when an act like this can be fearlessly perpetrated at an aristocratic gathering like Goodwood, that it should be repeated elsewhere. Here is an extract from one of the letters which appeared at the time : — Words fail to convey any idea of the ruffianism, robbers, and welshing which took place at the so-called Grand Stand at Alexandra Park on Saturday last.

There were from two to three hundred organised pro- fessional welshers, thieves, and bullies, with few exceptions well known to the officials and police and even to an occasional race-goer like myself. Woe to the unfortunate individual who insisted on the payment of a bet — a split skull dealt from behind, a scuffle, and robbery.

I have no hesitation in saying that the life of every man and woman in that enclosure was absolutely at the mercy of this organised and desperate gang, and a feeling of fear paralysed the stoutest of us. There were scores of such public communica- tions. One racing correspondent of a large provincial paper stated that he should never think of going to the course without a revolver in his pocket. Of course the so-called sporting and publicans' papers tried to make out that these letters were not genuine, or were exaggerated, but without exception they bear on their face evidence of their reality.

We may be allowed to quote the following reflections, which witness to the existence of this ruffianly condition of the Turf, from Mr. The sight of it fills me with loathing. It brings to my mind that placard I saw at a station in Surrey a year or two ago, advertising certain races in the neighbourhood.

Here is the poster as I copied it into my notebook : — " Engaged by the Executive to ensure order and com- fort to the public attending the meeting : 1 4 detectives racing , 15 detectives Scotland Yard , 7 police inspectors, 9 police sergeants, 76 police, and a super- numerary contingent of specially selected men from the Army Reserve and Corps of Commissionaires.

The above force will be employed solely for the purpose of maintaining order and excluding bad characters, etc. They will have the assistance also of a strong force of the Surrey Constabulary. Every one knows that horse-racing is carried on mainly for the delight and profit of fools, ruffians, and thieves. For a good insight from a bookmaker's point of view of the " sport of kings " the reader is referred to Sixty Years on the Turf, by George Hodgman.

Bad as all this is, the continued permission of existence to these scores of peripatetic gambling hells would be an isolated evil were it not in- extricably mixed up indirectly with the dailyjjfe of the masses of the population, who very seldom or never visit the courses. But these baneful institu- tions and the gambling clubs are fed by the life- blood of the people, whose hard-earned money flows by the thousand retail conduits of street and factory bookmakers to these gambling marts and clearing houses.

It is not only where working men and women gather in numbers, but in the home, amongst domestic servants of both sexes, in the shop, the office, on the journey, in educational establishments, even in the Sunday school and the juvenile social club and class, that betting is discovered. A lady who devotes her life to the young, and lives among them in a poor part of London, says that she has very little difficulty about drink amongst the youths, but hardly dare attack the betting system- atically for fear of losing her proteges.

She found one lad actually receiving telegrams from France during the Continental racing season. An alarming development, for those who travel by rail and who does not? Any one i. IajJ w ho, iik e the writer, has been in a railway collision, will vividly appreciate this. The crunch of the carriages, the awful succeeding moment between life and death, are among the ills that mortality is heir to in modern times, and are borne with more or less philosophy, to some extent perhaps depend- ing upon the preveutibility of the cause.

But it will be well for railway directors, many of whom provide special facilities for the race-course gamesters all through the summer, to the inconvenience of the ordinary traffic, and wink at the gambling which goes on in their carriages however illegal, to draw the line at signal-boxes being made places under the Act and their signalmen being bookmakers. The conviction recently of a signalman for book- making at Knaresborough is by no means a solitary instance.

In reporting to the Board of Trade on the North British Eailway collision at Lochmill siding, Major Pringle states that just before it occurred there were five persons in the signal-box playing games. There are reasons to fear that there are bookmakers' agents in many of the large railway stations, carrying on their regular nefarious business with the staffs, and affecting the comfort and safety of the public. As to the race-course ruffians, whose patronage is so carefully nursed, they have been known to descend from race trains and relieve refreshment rooms of the provisions without payment, so that it is now the practice in some places to clear them of their contents before the advent of these traffic-cherished caravans.

All sections of society are more or less corrupted by the gambling habits prevalent, and particularly by the professional betting system. In the Civil Service the evil has spread most seriously in the Post Office and Police departments, but is not confined to them. Information having been sent to the writer of this paper that a clerk in a Government office was using the public stationery and other conveniences to issue betting lists from that office, personal application was made to the principal of the establishment, who investi- gated the matter, found the allegation to be correct, and promptly put a stop to the proceeding.

Upon another occasion it was discovered that two clerks were hired to spend their two-day holiday from Civil Service work by the betting men financially interested in a race meeting, who employed them in taking the entrance money to the rings. The published opinions of such men as Field- Marshal Sir George White, General Wavell, Lord Charles Beresford, Admiral Kawson, and others bear eloquent testimony to the fact that the mili- tant Services are suffering from the immunity obtained by professional gamesters, owing to the lax application of our existing laws and the need for others.

Many items of information, both of a private and public nature, are alarmingly sug- gestive of such considerations. A single instance of the latter may be found space for. One of the witnesses before the Select Committee of the House of Lords was an officer commanding a battalion of the Scots Guards, and he gave evidence of the fact that he was a sort of chairman of a betting com- mittee, the go-between of the Jockey Club and Tattersall's, upon which he spent a considerable portion of his time, the principal duty apparently being to settle betting squabbles between members of the betting clubs and the professional betting men.

If this is not considered infra dig. His colleagues upon this important tribunal included, he said, a representa- tive of the Ring and two well-known commission agents, the trade alias for bookmakers. We have no hesitation in saying that the Navy is as badly tainted, not only upon the evidence of officers whom we have mentioned and others, but on information from different sources.

He was dismissed the Service and suffered a year's imprisonment. In Rear- Admiral Henderson, Superintendent of Devonport Dockyard, discovered that betting was being systematically carried on, and published an order notifying the discharge of a skilled labourer of nineteen years' service. Professional betting is not confined to horse- racing. Lists are habitually issued in connection with other sports, particularly football.

It is gambling which causes the rush for the football editions of the half-penny journals, and, notwith- standing the efforts made by some of its principal patrons, leading officials of the football world have been found taking part in the disreputable gambling arrangements of sporting newspapers.

Gambling Cards In miscellaneous gambling, cards, harmless in themselves, are still prominent. The game of Bridge amongst the wealthier classes is responsible for reproducing many of the vicious situations we read of in the chronicles of our forefathers. While Queen Victoria was lying dead, one very prominent female society leader could not be got to abstain from this form of gambling even for a brief space.

At the aristocratic mansion over which she presides guests must play. One young man of moderate income suggested that his means were quite unequal to such hazards as the hostess and her friends were accustomed to, but he was given to understand that he could play or leave. He unhappily chose the former alternative, and in a few hours lost half-a- year's income. There are hundreds of smaller imitators of this woman, whose husband ranks high in the political world. The disgusting position is frequently created of young girls, not discouraged from gambling by their parents, losing money which they have difficulty in paying to men with whom they are not otherwise well acquainted.

Amongst the poor, where horse-race betting does not prevail, cards, to which juveniles are largely taking, as well as automatic machine gambling, are often made the vehicle for disposing of their small means. No stock passes. It is merely gambling in the rise or fall for differences. Here, as else- where, neglect, for which the whole nation is to blame, has allowed matters to get into a groove, and great difficulty will be found in getting out of it. In another chapter suggestions are made, and if the proposed remedy is necessarily a serious one for those whose business is to a great extent founded upon an illegitimate basis, some of them at least feel that the present system is indefensible, and the following pathetic extracts from a letter written by a member of a leading Stock Exchange firm merely express the conscientious misgivings of the best class of men there — misgivings which are more 42 BETTING AND GAMBLING or less shared by all but the hardened gamblers of the establishment : — The evils of speculation, in common with many more fellows here, I much deplore ; but at the same time, when three-fourths of the business is of that nature, what is the alternative to most Stock Exchange men 1 Either starvation or gaining a livelihood by means which one's conscience tells you to be wrong ; and human nature is not proof against the temptation.

That is the naked truth, not to mince matters ; and God knows it is an awful fact, to those who give any thought to these things. I am perfectly certain that the majority of Stock Exchange men loathe the business, and would be glad to get out of it.

The subject is never absent from my mind. I have felt in a great strait over it for years. God grant that I may get out of it somehow ; but how, He only knows. It seems queer to write like this to a stranger, but you have struck such a chord of sympathy that it is a relief to unbosom one's mind. The above remarks also apply to the produce and metal exchanges.

The misery caused in Lanca- shire and elsewhere by American gamblers cornering the cotton market is calling the attention of mer- chants to this branch of the subject, and with a little goodwill on the part of the Governments con- cerned there should be no insuperable difficulty in framing regulations which will greatly hamper, if not destroy, the possibility in future of such proceedings.

Individual and family ruin from it in all classes is frequent ; and there are thousands of cases stopping short of this, but entailing, besides material loss and suffering, the lowering of the moral and mental nature, thus affecting the intellectual and religious fibre of the people. But the evil to the nation does not stop here. Until lately, at all events, the highest Courts of Law, as well as the lower ones, did not escape the indirect taint, and even now politicians and office-holders, who would be ostracised in Japan, continue to allow themselves, and very often their households, to be deeply involved in gambling transactions in their homes, their clubs, and with low practitioners of the race -course ring, their children in numberless cases copying the evil habit.

The public services are corrupted, particularly the Police and the Post Office, the latter institution rendering many unnecessary services to the gambling system, in the profits of which it largely shares, and not making the special efforts which we see in the United States and else- where to hamper professional gambling. The nation 44 BETTING AND GAMBLING f as a whole is, it may be hoped, too healthy in a moral sense to allow a further continuance of this social plague without a great effort to grapple with it; but the bitter experience of the nineteenth century demonstrates how futile it would be to rely solely, or even to any great extent, upon the unaided attempts of educational persuasion to root it out.

These, indeed, must not be relaxed, they must be increased and multiplied, and should be supplemented by more extensive and systematic endeavours, aiming at improved conditions of life for the poor, and further amelioration of health, and opportunities for recreation ; but betting and gambling should also be made, as they can be made, by amended and better applied legal regulations, far less profitable, and more difficult, dangerous, and disgraceful, whether for the rich or the needy.

There need be no real interference with the liberty of the subject ; for that liberty, regarded in a true light, should not confer any licence to trade upon the ignorance, weakness, or folly of others, which is the characteristic of all gamesters, and not least of those belonging to the professional betting system. Wilson Nothing is easier than to heap abuse upon the Stock Exchange and to place to its debit every crime of which the gambler can be guilty.

And all the abuse would have a sediment of truth beneath it, for infinite are the evils that have grown up and spread their roots far and wide through all strata of modern society since the day when dealing in stocks and shares first became a passion or a habit. True as this is, and numberless as may be the demoralising consequences of indulgence in the habit of stock and share " bulling " and " bearing," it would be none the less false and unjust to lay upon Stock Exchanges and their members all, or even half, the blame for the moral undermining of society that may ensue from subjection to the hazards of the play.

In many of its functions the Stock Exchange has always done admirable service to civilised mankind, and the great majority of the members of all such institutions are men as upright, as humane and high-principled as could be found among any body of merchants in the world. From the point of view, however, of the highest ideal of national morality, it is unquestionable that the trade of the stockbroker is of tainted origin.

In this country the business began in an organised sense when William III. We must, however, in most things take the world as we find it, and in spite of my hatred of all debts, and of my belief that debt never paid off in the long run ruins the debtor, whether individual or state, it has to be admitted that igood of many kinds Jcame out of evil in this instance.

Imagine what might have happened if the banker's utilitarian fiction, which treated the symbols or book entries of moneys spent in wars as so much realised wealth, capable of being utilised to call still more wealth into existence, had never been allowed to have free play. The nation would have perished beneath the dead weight of its obligations. Called upon to find the interests of the debts imposed upon it, out of resources suffering continual depletion, unstimulated by any new capital beyond what the minority might or might not have been able to furnish at the moment out of its savings, it would have sunk lower and lower in poverty, until its condition might have become one of hopeless anarchy.

The banker and the stock-jobber between them saved England from that fate — unconsciously, perhaps, but they none the less saved it. Their operations often exhibited a kind of inverted, topsy-turvy communism. Gravely treating the promises to pay emitted by governments of all degrees of irre- sponsibility as the inviolable obligations of the people at large, they used these promises and symbols of wealth already dissipated as the bases on which to rest further credits granted to joint- stock enterprises — to South Sea bubbles no doubt, but also to East India companies, Hudson Bay com- panies, mining companies, canal companies, adven- tures of all kinds, some of which outlived the manias amid which they came into existence, and survive in one form or another to this hour.

Throughout modern history, the part played by debt in engender- 48 BETTING AND GAMBLING ing credit, in calling capital into existence as it were out of nothing, and providing the means to carry out great undertakings by whose completion alone could the credit-born capital become living and real, has been such as to transform the world, girdle and seam it with railways, bind it together by electric cables, and cover its oceans with ships almost as sure and safe in their comings and goings as a suburban railway train.

In ways almost infinite, credit was created to represent assets not yet in being ; and, by putting in pawn of previously exist- ing debts, and through the intermediary of banks, it drew out hoards from the keeping of the thrifty. Dead capital — capital spent — came to life again as it were, anoTwas a potent agent for the advancement of mankind in civilisation. By this means modern nations not only stimulated their manufacturing industries, awoke and encouraged inventiveness, spread their productions over the whole world, but developed cities at home and made life bearable for aggregates of population whose healthy existence would have been impossible under the conditions prevalent, say, at the close of the Napoleonic wars and for long after.

Many other forces doubtless were at work so far as England alone is concerned — wealth drawn from India, the tireless energy of the race, the backward- ness of other nations — but it was in no small measure the impetus supplied by those portions of our otherwise intolerable National Debt, utilised as a means of creating credit through our banks, that the resources and energies of the nation, and such STOCK EXCHANGE GAMBLING 49 forces as it drew from the yearly accretions of its savings, the ever-increasing fruition of its accom- plished enterprises, were given full scope.

In this development the Stock Exchange played a leading part. Without it as intermediary, little pro gress could have been made. Human nature rather than the share market must therefore be blamed for the manias and delirious gambling by which every step in the triumph of man over the forces of nature, of time and space, has been accompanied. The younger generation does not remember the days of the railway mania, when men went demented over wild and hopeless -looking projects, and rushed worthless shares to fantastic premiums in the height of the disease ; but amid that insanity the warp and woof of our present network of roads came into being.

There were enormous losses inflicted upon the multitude by the collapse, the always inevitable collapse ; but good work was none the less done, progress made. Again, I may say, had the masses of mankind been capable of obeying high ideals, all this could have been avoided. It is possible to conceive a state governed by a spirit of mutual help and wholesome brotherliness in citizenship, wherein all would have been united according to their means to build these new iron highways for the good of the whole community, not for private gain ; but it is vanity to think thoughts like these, men being what they are.

The one effective force that could be relied on to attract the necessary capital to any enterprise is cupidity in one degree or another, the desire for individual profit. I will only cite some characteristics as ground for suggestions towards the abatement of admitted evils. Their eradication, I fear, is beyond hope until the spirit of mankind changes and its ideals.

Certain characteristics stand out prominently to distinguish Stock Exchange gambling of the present day from that prevalent before the first Limited Liability Act, that of , came into force. Previous to that date gambling in stocks had been confined to a limited class of the wealthy, whether aristocratic or professional — to the narrow, plutocratic classes and their immediate flunkies and hangers-on ; but after the Limited Liability Act of gave definite form to this kind of joint-stock enterprise and enlarged the field of operations, speculation gradually became the fashion with classes of people hitherto unfamiliar with it-, and the fascinations of the play attracted wider and ever-widening circles of society.

Nowadays, shares of 5 s. Even when such share rises to five, ten, or twenty times its nominal value, it still seems easy, tempts the multitude more perhaps than when it may be at a discount, and there are such facilities for indulgence in the passion to make money with- out effort, with " no risk at all," as the bucket-shop puffer is ever iterating. The market gives every facility, is ready to lend its means to the player, to smooth the field for him at the start.

He need not pay for the shares he buys. The dealer and broker will " carry " them for him fortnight after fortnight, as each market " settlement " comes round, lending the money at handsome rates of interest, and charging an infinitesimal commission, or, per- haps, no commission at all, for performing this neces- sary operation. Each fortnight, as the Stock Ex- change account comes round, he pockets his " differ- ence," the sum left over as product of the advance in price after all charges have been met, and thinks himself on the high road to affluence.

Initial success inflames the appetite, fresh purchases are made, probably before the earlier speculations are closed, and while the profits already reaped by the earlier gambles are being spent as fast as received. By and by reaction comes, losses accrue, expressed in " differences " to be paid instead of received, and the end is usually misery for years, for a lifetime, or sudden and irretrievable ruin.

Slowly, and amid infinite suffering, this harvest of the South African, the Kaffir market insanity is now being reaped, as that of more than one Australasian and American rage of speculative abandon has been again and again during the present generation. Is the disease thus indicated incurable — a dis- ease whose course is invariable, whose end is profit, wealth perhaps, to one in a quarter of a million among the players, and to all the others various gradations of loss, from a few pounds disbursed in exchange for wisdom-fraught experience to complete ruin and social degradation?

Yes, I believe it to be incurable, especially in a society constructed with such all-pervading artificiality as ours. One's first impulse is to cast unmitigated censure upon the gambler ; but that also would be unjust. Constituted, moreover, as the social economy of modern England is, the great bulk of our fellow-citizens have no assured foothold in the land of their birth. They toil with- out hope, and see only privation or absolute want at the end of the day's work — be it long, be it short.

Essentially we are a nation of nomads, uprooted from the soil, and with no assured hold on the means of existence, speaking of the mass, beyond what the weekly wage or yearly salary fur- nishes. What more natural, one may say inevitable, than that this divorcement should generate in a vigorous race a hunger after security, a craving for some refuge, some shield against the uncertainties of existence, a way of escape, perhaps, from the irksomeness of individual surroundings, the tyranny of a hard taskmaster, the caprices of employers, whose power over all beneath them is too often almost that of life and death.

Others, again, are moved merely by vanity, by false standards of social wellbeing, by jealous emulation of those who may seem richer than they are, for is not the possession of money our one standard of " wealth " and wellbeing? A habit is established, and may become a craze, a passion, a lust that in time will devour all that is best in the heart and intellect. Such seems to me a fair summary of the psycho- logy of gambling, and I do not see how its ravages are to be stayed, the disease eliminated from society, without radical changes in its structure implying loss of privilege and an abatement of class selfish- ness by the few who now stand apart, the nation's drones and hive-harriers, or without the cultivation of higher ideals than those implied in mere purse- proud social emulation.

And of one thing I am sure ; the London Stock Exchange can do little or nothing to check the ravages of this social canker, nothing effectual can be done in any Stock Exchange of them all. To expect bodies of men, associated together for purposes of gain, in the conduct of their daily business to lay down self-denying rules for their conduct, is not merely unwise but futile. The more the organised groups of stock-jobbers and brokers doing business at particular centres called Stock Exchanges hemmed themselves in by restric- tions established with a view to limit the facilities for play, for buying and selling, the more such busi- ness would be thrown into the hands of irrespon- sible outsiders, most, if not all, of whom are mere vultures and cormorants, devourers of the substance of all who fall into their hands.

Often when the London Stock Exchange, by far the most powerful and best organ- ised institution of the kind in the world, has attempted to bar the way to the mere speculator in certain directions it has been defeated. It refused many years ago to sanction dealings before allot- ment, that is to say, purchases and sales of a security before it was really in the hands of the market or the public. The dealings went on all the same, until the liberty had to be restored. Unto this hour many members of the "House," as the Stock Exchange is affectionately called by its members, set their faces against gambling in " options " — against, that is, the system of play by which a speculator puts down so much money, parts with it for good, in exchange for the right to " call " for the delivery, or to give delivery, of a certain specified amount of a particular security — to " put," the slang is — on a certain future day at a price fixed when the transaction is entered into.

But this kind of pure betting business grows every year all the same, and is now of a magnitude an Act of Parliament could hardly do much to lessen. Against the force of human passions no Stock Exchange can hope to war with success, and I do not believe that any such body should be asked to impose self: denying ordinances upon itself, the only effect of which would be to drive the business away from it into channels more fertile still in ruin.

But if there is no root and branch remedy, there must be some palliatives. It should be possible to do this, and with goodwill something might be done even by the Stock Exchange. Take as example the habit now prevalent of introducing new securities of all kinds on the market without the preliminary of a prospectus.

This habit has received a great stimulus from the latest attempts at company law reform, in virtue of which the liability of directors for state- ments in prospectus has been sensibly increased. To escape that risk, new companies are now launched without preliminary statements of any sort. Certain members of the Stock Exchange, acting in concert with the schemers outside by whom they are em- ployed, begin to buy and sell shares in an under- taking whose very name may be until that moment unknown everywhere, and about which neither market nor public has any information whatever.

By arrangements with the financial press, whose charges for such services are most remunerative, quotations representing these unreal sales and pur- chases are daily and weekly paraded before the public, often accompanied by vague general state- ments regarding the wonderful wealth this particular share represents. Attracted in this way, the ignor- ant presently begin to itch to take a hand in the game, and gradually, if times are favourable and what the contemptuous broker calls the "fool public " is " on the feed," quite a lively market arises, whose end is the stripping of the outsiders by those who laid the snare.

All that the public may have left is worthless shares. Dozens, one may say scores, of African and other swindles of this sort have been perpetrated during recent times of excitement, and now and then the Stock Exchange itself has been cheated. Surely it ought to require no great amount of self-denial on the part of this body to stop peremptorily all impostures conceived and carried out after this fashion. It need only refuse to grant a settlement of bargains in any share thus foisted upon the public until the whole of the facts relating to it are laid before its committee, and quotations in the official list ought never to be granted to any company until the whole facts regarding it have been properly laid before the public.

In other words, I think nothing but good could arise even to the market were the Stock Exchange to enact a rule forbidding the introduction of any security on its floor by the members until full information had been published by those responsible for its inception, whether by prospectus or by properly authenticated and signed declara- tions.

Another reform within the power of the Stock Exchange that might do much good would be the prevention of dealings in shares that represent goodwill, and therefore, as a rule, merely the plunder of promoters. Often, as it is, vendors' shares are not "good delivery" until after a certain time has elapsed. The plunderings of the Cecil Ehodeses, Whitaker Wrights, Hooleys, and the like would in this way be circumscribed, although by no means stopped.

Unhappily, as I hold, the mischief cannot be entirely stopped until the spirit of the nation changes. Once the habit of " bulling " and " bearing " — of buying more than one can pay for or of selling what one does not possess — lays hold of a man, the disease is too often incurable. When the victim suffers loss — gets caught by the market, as he would put it — he doubtless suffers more or less acute mental agony according to his character, the traditions of honour- able conduct he may possess, or the extent of his risk.

Then his mood becomes that of the old rhyme : " When the devil was sick, the devil a monk would be. But let the danger pass, the threatened loss become a profit, and all is for- gotten when next temptation comes. The player resumes the game, and, on a " tip " from some interested source, sells a "bear," in the hope of robbing the unknown counter player through a fall in the price that will enable him to buy back at a profit and pocket the difference drawn out of such counter player's resources.

Morally, I may say, there is not an atom of difference in the character of these two operations, unless it be found in the fact that the " bear," the speculative seller, is on the average a man of wider intelligence than the " bull. The publication of such bad news becomes the signal for those who have sold what they do not possess to rush into the market and repurchase.

This operation often causes prices to advance on bad news, and always steadies the market against dis- turbing influences, to the great benefit of the real holder, who is thus enabled to sell at a smaller loss than would otherwise be possible. Bad news on an over-bought account — on a market, that is, where the great majority of the players are holding securities for the rise on borrowed money — always brings disaster.

From this point of view, the " bear " is much more useful to the genuine investor than his opponent ; but morally there is nothing to choose, so far as the individual operator is concerned, between the two methods of speculating. It is in their power to cut their losses always when such begin to accrue, and many amongst them close the day with their books " even. They are mere traders, whose judgment of the market tendencies guides them in taking the one course or the other for the day only.

It is altogether different, however, for the outsider, the man amongst the public, whether he resides in the City, or at Land's End, or in Connemara. Such cannot operate with rapidity, and usually act upon tips and prepossessions, which in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred prove fatal to their peace of mind and injurious to their pocket.

Is it, then, impossible to induce the multitude amongst the people to abandon this method of hunt- ing after wealth without labour, for that is our only hope? A change in the spirit of the people, a higher sense of self-respect, a deeper regard for the community of interests which would lead a man to treat his neighbour as a man to be helped, not injured, would do more to put an end to this modern habit than any number of rules and regulations.

It has been suggested that gambling could be almost entirely put an end to were sellers of shares to be compelled to hand in the name of the possessor, or the numbers of bonds where bonds are sold. Undoubtedly this would stop every kind of free- handed gambling, except by way of options ; but could any such regulation be established that would apply to the irresponsible dealings of the outside gambler through bucket-shops?

I think not. Take the example of Bank shares. It is almost forgotten nowadays that, as a consequence of the banking panic of , an Act, known as Leeman's Act, from the name of the man by whom it was introduced and carried through Parliament, effectu- ally stopped speculative dealing in Bank shares. These are now consequently exclusively an invest- ment security. They cannot be sold without giving the numbers of the shares and the name of the holder out of whose possession the shares are to come.

There is consequently never any " bear " ac- count, that is to say, any account open in unspecified shares sold for the fall, in Bank shares, and un- questionably this immunity from attack has been most valuable in checking Bank scares when credit has become strained.

But what would happen supposing a crisis arose through the failure of one or two important Banks? Would it be possible for frightened shareholders to escape their liability and sell out before the crisis became acute? No, it would not. The shares would simply be unsaleable on any terms ; there would be no market for them at all, and each individual holder would be compelled to face his loss without chance of escape.

From a moral point of view this may be all right — I am not objecting — but undoubtedly the acuteness of the disaster would be concentrated to a cruel and most ruinous extent upon the then existing groups of Bank shareholders. This at once stopped speculative selling, but I doubt whether the consequence was not to weaken the market and to render the credit of Eussia suspect amongst the multitude who, speculatively or otherwise, held this particular national debt.

At any rate, the rule was very soon abandoned, and dealings resumed on the old footing. In Germany a number of restrictions and vexatious taxes have been placed upon Bourse transactions, especially those of a speculative kind, without increasing the health of the market or really diminishing the amount of gambling done. The business is transferred to other markets, very largely to London — that is all.

Again, it may be said that the English Govern- ment put an end to one form of gambling, still prevalent on the Continent, with complete success. Lotteries were put down by Act of Parliament, and the trade of the lottery -ticket jobber summarily stopped. That is true enough, but there is no analogy between a step of this kind and stopping gambling in actually existing securities.

If lottery loans themselves had not been discontinued, it would have been impossible for any Government to stop the pernicious dealing in lottery tickets. An example of legislative powerlessness has been furnished by recent efforts at joint- stock company law amendment. The Act of , which was going to do so much to purify the atmosphere and limit the ravages of the unscrupulous promoter and his " front page " guinea-pigs, has really increased the mischief, as I have already pointed out.

Gam- bling might be diminished were the State to increase the taxes upon speculative transactions, although I am doubtful ; but any such increase would rather tend to emphasise the absurdity of the Gaming Acts. Through these Acts it is possible now for any speculator to repudiate his obligations, and cases frequently arise in the Law Courts where losses are in this way repudiated. Possibly the law might be able to put down outside speculative agencies, which do an incalcul- able amount of mischief, and yet even there diffi- culties stand in the way.

Are newspapers to be forbidden to insert the advertisements of these "bucket-shops"? Will the Post Office refuse to transmit their circulars? How far is it legitimate or safe, let alone wise, for the State to interfere in order to protect the fool from the consequences of his own folly? The remedy must come, I repeat, from the people themselves : from better instruction, from healthier views of what constitutes true success and respect- ability. There is an emulation in extravagance which has spread widely through all classes of society during the past two generations, and has now culminated in a vicious recklessness that does more to whet the appetite for gambling of all kinds than anything else.

We do not need to go so far : society in the West End of London is quite sufficient for illustration. The habits there have grown in extravagance within my time to a degree almost impossible to realise ; and most people embraced in this word " society," as well as thousands who are pressing to get within the magic circle, live beyond their means, struggle to eke out their inadequate incomes — inadequate through the standard set up by gambling on the Stock Exchange, often by ruining themselves.

Why cannot people exercise some moral re- straint, or at least a trifle of common-sense? No system of gambling in existence treats the public with absolute fair play. The sharper is everywhere, but far less frequently in evidence on the Stock Exchange than anywhere else.

According to the character of that security, he will pay from 25s. This charge is really a very small payment for the work done — would be quite inadequate payment at its highest, did the market transact investment business alone.

That money, however, is so much out of pocket at the start to be set against expected profit. Then there is what is called the jobber's "turn. He buys at one price and sells at another, the difference being his immediate limit of profit. Assume such difference to be merely half -a- crown per cent, and the stock bought will cost the outside buyer 50s. The security purchased will therefore have to rise 5 s.

If the profit, however, does not come along within a fortnight or thereby, arrangements have to be made to carry the transaction forward to a new account, as it is called. This involves interest on the money, which cannot, on an average, be less than 5 per cent per annum, or roughly another 50 s. Let a speculative purchase be carried on in this way for a few months, and it will become evident to every- body that a very considerable rise must occur before the purchaser is able to sell at a profit after meeting all charges.

If people would reflect in this way, and make calculations before they plunged into a gambling transaction of the sort, they would surely often hold their hands. With sales for the fall — sales of what a man does not possess — it is often very much worse, especially if a man has sold a share or stock on which dividends accrue from time to time. He may be saved the cost of interest on money lent to him, but has to pay the dividend upon the stock he sold each time that one is declared ; and should selling for the fall have been large enough to exceed the supply of shares available for lending purposes, he may be called upon to pay a fine for failing to deliver what he sold, and each fortnight the carry- over charges have to be deducted from the price at which he sold, together with dividends when they come, and fines for non-delivery when the " bear " is more or less " cornered.

We shall require a world-enveloping credit cata- clysm to lift mankind out of its present vicious ruts on to a higher, a more altruistic moral plat- form. Betting has so long been associated with men that it is probable there are still many people who have never considered the evil in its relation to women. The attention of those, however, who have given some thought to the problem of betting and gam- bling has been increasingly turned to this phase of the question, and it is now certain that among women the practice is spreading with alarming rapidity.

As in the case of men, the habit is not confined to any one class of society but has affected all, so that at the one end of the social scale costly jewellery is sold to cover bridge debts and at the other blankets are pawned to put money on a horse. If we turn to the evidence given before the Lords Commission we find numerous side references to the practice.

One of these slips ie. And it appears that she had 8s. In what position in life would she be? He once needed the services of the notorious Frank Lefty Rosenthal to influence a Minneapolis bookie into paying Banker the thirty grand owed to him. Recent years have not been kind to him, troubling family issues bubbling quite publicly, but he retains pachyderm-like epidermis and a sharp sense of humor. And in my first meeting with him, he had just won all three NFL games on which he had wagered.

The American public roots for the underdog but bets favorites. You can put that in your [book]. The greatest intellectual challenge, Matt Youmans says of sports betting, is in terms of trying to win, to come out ahead. I mean, when you lose, it fucks with your head, right? I love the challenge of it. Roxy Roxborough, who has accomplished the rare industry grand slam by having bet, made book, set odds, and participated in casino ownership, puts it succinctly.

If you spend your whole life in sports gambling, you are always having fun or never having fun. It is a fine line. Now hailed as possibly the most successful sports bettor in the world, Tony The Lizard Bloom did not start out that way.

He began, however, when he was fifteen, betting in British shops with a fake ID that showed he was eighteen. I liked to think that I understood the form and had a strategy, but I was just guessing, really. More on the secretive Bloom later. Sports betting is a burgeoning field whose noise, disinformation, and disingenuousness can be deafening, at best, daunting, at worst.

Arrogance and ignorance abound in the business. A long-time national sports-broadcasting figure, who should have known better, since he purports to have once been so knee-deep in sports gambling, wonders aloud—on more than three hundred radio stations, coast-to-coast—about being able to bet on Nevada and Nevada—Las Vegas basketball and football games at Silver State sports books. In January of it became legal to wager on the Wolf Pack and Rebels.

Only twenty-six years ago, three-term New Jersey senator Bill Bradley, the former Princeton University and New York Knicks basketball player, authored that federal decree restricting states from deciding the sports-gambling issue for themselves. He was agitated about the U. Supreme Court circular-filing his beloved bill. Unfortunate, he said in May A ruling that had no basis in what sport really is.

He talked about people having been able to bet on high-school games and summer-circuit, or travel-ball, hoops tournaments involving fourteen-year-olds. That sounded fishy. I contacted Westgate Las Vegas SuperBook vice president Jay Kornegay, then, to confirm that neither he nor anyone under him—or anyone, by his reckoning, at a rival book in Las Vegas—had ever posted odds or point spreads on a high school game. Of course not, he said.

So what gives when such fodder comes from someone like Bill Bradley, a supposed expert on the topic who, nonetheless, spews forth such fiction, with zero basis in reality? Moreover, a few weeks after the demise of that bill, former major-league pitcher Al Leiter went before a state legislature subcommittee hearing in New Jersey and spoke about the possibility of a rookie pitcher, making minimum salary, being tempted to indulge a friend into betting half a million dollars on the first pitch of a game being called a ball or a strike.

They just heard from somebody that they could take five hundred thousand on the first pitch of a baseball game. He laughs. The proliferation of sports gambling has been inevitable because economic lures are irresistible. In the thirty-six states, including Nevada, that allow some form of commercial gambling or tribal-casino gaming, gross revenues topped seventy billion dollars, for the first time, in Whatever the true figure, it is prodigious.

That is the carrot enticing officials of states that do not have sports gambling as they struggle with budget deficits. One observer believes New Jersey, due to immense interest and ample disposable income in the heavily populated region, might soon surpass Nevada in handle. People always want more, iconic oddsmaker Jimmy Vaccaro famously said.

Virgin sports-betting jurisdictions ogling those figures had best adjust their sights, at that per-shop net, out of which salaries and operating expenses are extracted. The South Point, for example, pays two hundred and fifty thousand dollars every two years for the right to show NFL games in its sports book.

Misdiagnosing fluctuations in the numbers and undisciplined wagering can transform a Pro into a Joe in the whiff of a bat or drop of a ball, decimating a bankroll. Where the former three-term mayor and lawyer and director emeritus of The Mob Museum Oscar Goodman, who earned major stripes representing mafia figures like Lefty Rosenthal and Anthony the Ant Spilotro, admits to being a lifetime degenerate gambler, eager to wager on anything, anytime.

He wrote that in his Being Oscar autobiography, and he knew that over the long haul he would not win. I know that going in, but I still love to bet. Where former pro basketball player Jalen Rose throws the bones at the Palms while donning a white New Orleans Jazz uniform,.

Pete Rose, after an afternoon and evening on the periphery of the Palms race book, briefcase at his side, unwittingly inks, in the former N9NE restaurant, his autograph on the back of a Mandalay Bay sports-book drink coupon. It currently resides beside its face-up brother at the bottom of an eleven-by-fourteen glass frame, Charlie Hustle, frozen in black-and-white eternity, Superman-diving toward home plate.

Field goal made, field goal missed. A touchdown, a fumble. The wallet is ten times thicker. Better known as the actor-comedian Jimmie J. Walker, he never hears the signature Dy-no-mite! At least, he never hears it from his left side. Where, at an off-strip establishment, two proprietor-toughs rest on elbows at the end of a bar. Where the late famed boxing scribe Bert Sugar, crowned by customary fedora, corner-mouth stogie emitting smoke whispers, buys drinks at the Foundation Room, atop the Mandalay Bay, for two new friends.

He regales with tales of Ali, Frazier, Norton, and Foreman, and having played poker in upstate New York with a certain statesman. That JFK, Sugar says, what a shitty bluffer. Where every trip to the grocery store includes, upon checkout, gamboling by banks of video-poker machines. Jerry Herbst, whose Southern Nevada empire consisted of more than one hundred and sixty convenience stores and car washes, many of which were marked by giant American flags on tall poles, died in November He had said that every time his father, Ed, opened another filling station in Chicago—pony rides for kids, free orchids for women, roller-skating pump girls in short-shorts for, uh, the guys, complimentary bubble gum for all—in the late thirties and forties, the competition would say, Here comes that terrible Herbst.

All have been witnessed during a residency of more than seventeen years, including Vegas vows, serving as sole witness, inside the Little Chapel of the West. A redwood A-frame complemented by a small spire, it belongs nestled among tall pines in Tahoe. Designer Betty Willis declined to copyright the vibrant and well-known horizontal-diamond landmark, altruism that cost her millions over the decades.

The nuptials. Do you take? During breakfast at the Peppermill, a Strip mainstay, I suppress the trivia nugget that widespread gambling and the quickie six-week divorce were both signed into state law on the same day in He has been supporting a comfortable retirement lifestyle solely by betting money on the outcome of sporting events—the predictable unpredictability of athletic contests, wrote Michael Vernetti.

He had grown weary of dealing with Uncle Nate, making book around the corner in back of the warehouse, and the murky offshore outlets. For twenty-five years, the golden goal had been beating the master-bookmakers in their own backyard, where he has marked his territory. The cherished Ashton VSGs are well stocked in the richly lacquered humidor, two clutches of Cohibas, de la Habana, reserved for confidants.

The wardrobe might be the weakness. In a compact bedroom, rows of shoes are stacked against a wall, tailored dress shirts and suits draped on a moveable rack. He dangles the exquisite dark model with chalk pinstripes. Wearing crisp-pleated denim pants and an orange short-sleeve silk shirt fresh from the dry cleaner, the fifty-nine-year-old Chicago native eases back in his cozy tan recliner. Mug clean-shaven, dark mane—Brylcreemed, maybe—combed straight back; the blocky visage and deep-dish twang are dead ringers for the actor Jim Belushi.

His dream defined. As legalized sports wagering spreads into new domains, in the wake of the U. I had met Van—his chosen alias, for reasons that will become obvious—at a pool party, thrown by mutual friends in southwestern Las Vegas, in the summer of He had prospered in the food and beverage industry, and other businesses, in the Midwest and South. With no fanfare, he added that he bets on sports. A line, in Vegas, as common as, This heat! Van, however, appeared composed and cool.

Coaxed to continue, he imparted how he aimed to make at least thirty thousand dollars, in each of five specialty arenas, over the ensuing twelve months; to earn a hundred and fifty grand and maintain his life of leisure if not luxury. Every year, my goal is to be able to increase my bet size by, oh, twenty or twenty-five percent.

Strict principles keep the lifelong bachelor in blue suede, with twenty-four-hour concierge access, a valet that whisks his new black Cadillac XTS to him at a finger snap. He manages an expanding bankroll by adhering to exceptional discipline, following prescribed patterns and tactics, a chartered course. He tinkers daily with his college-lined notebooks, filled with hand-written game results and abbreviations, weekly and seasonal records.


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