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Some freight emanating from the pastoral and fishing industries use the road. Access is also provided to Warroora and Ningaloo stations from this road. Coral Bay Road Coral Bay Road provides access to the tourism facilities at Coral Bay and is used almost exclusively for tourism related activity.

Access also is provided to Cardabia Station and the coastal access network north to Ningaloo Station and Yardie Creek. It also is a major tourism road providing a link to the Pilbara. The primary access network is providing adequate primary access to the study area at present. The upgrading of the primary access network, outlined in this document, continues to be supported by the strategy.

These roads may require pavement widening to ensure that they fulfil their function. This strategy does not promote additional modifications to the primary access network. Coastal access network The main coastal access network provides direct access to the coastal area and the majority of pastoral stations within the study area. The standard of road varies from sealed road to sandy tracks, which predominantly are the responsibility of local government.

The roads in the coastal access network are classified as follows: Track An unconstructed and unformed road, essentially a track made by four-wheel drives and other large vehicles, created by force. Local government does not maintain them, but is generally aware of their existence as they usually represent a gap between sections of formed roads. Type 1 — Unformed road These are cleared, flat-bladed roads, with minimum construction, and usually are formed from in-situ or adjacent material.

Two- wheel drives can use them but only at low speeds. This includes roads with intermittent sheeting. Type 4 — Sealed road These are constructed roads with a sealed surface but without kerbing. The following describes the form and function of each of the sections of the coastal access network.

North West Coastal Highway - Blowholes The Blowholes Road is a good-quality type 4 sealed road providing access for tourists and local residents to the southern coastal section of the study area and servicing the Dampier Salt operation. The key features serviced by this road include Boolathana Station, The Blowholes, Blowholes tourism node and the coastal road north.

Blowholes to Gnaraloo Gnaraloo Road is an unsealed road running parallel with the coast. The road is type 2 formed road standard between the Blowholes and Quobba and drops to a two- lane type 1 unformed road between Quobba and Gnaraloo Bay.

This access is to remain closed making the area a remote coastal sector and an area of environmental management priority. The main Warroora station access road is from the Minilya - Exmouth Road. Warroora to Coral Bay The Warroora to Coral Bay section comprises a network of poorly defined station tracks, including coastal access tracks, not suitable for two-wheel drive vehicles.

This main access between Warroora and Coral Bay is via the northern station access road connecting to the Minilya - Exmouth Road. The tracks are subject to restrictions on usage. The tracks provide the only access to the coastal features in this area. Coral Bay to Ningaloo This track is considered a flat-bladed track of a slow two-wheel drive standard is a flat- bladed track standard, with the exception of the sandy blowouts.

Ningaloo to Yardie Creek The Ningaloo to Yardie Creek Road while a local government road Shire of Exmouth is a flat-bladed track standard, mostly accessible by two-wheel drive vehicles to Winderabandi. The area from Winderabandi to Yardie Creek is predominately four-wheel drive access with the samphire flat areas and Yardie Creek Crossing sometimes becoming impassable after rain. It currently does not follow the road reserve and the reserve status within Australian Government land requires definitive resolution.

There are a number of indiscriminate tracks and minor detours being created, possibly due to sandy or inundated sections. It is a type 3 gravel road and provides good access to Ningaloo Station. It is used to service the station and by tourists wishing to access coastal areas between Ningaloo and Yardie Creek.

Recreational use of roads Various reports have highlighted the need for improved coastal access based on research and analysis undertaken during their preparation. During the development of this strategy, a number of issues have also highlighted the need for improved and managed coastal access. There are growing numbers of people visiting the Ningaloo coast.

This is evidenced by the increase in accommodation being provided at the more formalised sites the capacity of Red Bluff increased from 30 in to a current peak capacity of The tourism season is being extended into the summer months, as a result of international tourists wishing to visit the region year round. The operators of the various formalised facilities are planning modest expansion, resources allowing, as a result of the continuing growth.

This continued growth relates directly to an increased need to provide better planned access. Definitive traffic data to support the increasing visitor trend along the coast is difficult to obtain. However, figures obtained from Main Roads WA indicate that the Minilya - Exmouth Road had an average daily traffic count of vehicles in to , an increase from to of about 38 per cent or approximately 3.

Consequences of increased recreational use Given the general increase in accommodation and the traffic growth being experienced on the primary access network, it is evident that the existing coastal access network is under increasing pressure.

As described in the Coastal access network section, there are parts of the existing coastal access network able to support this increased usage adequately without any direct detriment to the environment Blowholes Road, Quobba to Gnaraloo. However the sections of coastal access network unable to support the increased usage, due to inappropriate location and standard, may cause detrimental impacts on the environment.

These impacts may be addressed initially as ad hoc realignments, including severely corrugated sections of road, created to gain access around boggy sections or low-lying inundated areas. Secondary impacts, such as indiscriminate access to a new location or expansion of an existing site, may result from the existing lack of management of tracks.

The creation of a new camping site in an inappropriate location has the potential to create even more environmental degradation through the ad hoc creation of additional tracks. Other considerations in the provision and upgrading of road infrastructure Environmental Protection Act Any new infrastructure proposals will need to be referred to the Environmental Protection Authority EPA for consideration under the Environmental Protection Act This includes upgrading of existing roads, and any proposal for a coastal road between Gnaraloo and Warroora stations.

A new coastal access network in this locality would require referral to the EPA. Hope for the future: The Western Australian state sustainability strategy, The strategy highlights the need for integrated land use and transport planning so that the land use function drives the transport requirements and not vice versa.

The Ningaloo coast regional strategy Carnarvon to Exmouth and the associated Coastal tourism framework will guide land use and development within the study area and any improvements to the coastal access network will be implemented incrementally or the status quo maintained in response to changing transport demand. Aboriginal heritage The archaeological record of the Cape Range peninsula is significant in that it provides the earliest confirmed evidence of Pleistocene marine resource use in Australia.

Aboriginal habitation of the North West Cape and Exmouth area is thought to have commenced at least 32 years with some reports of 38 years before the present and continues up to the present. The Gnulli group are recognised by the Aboriginal community as custodians of Aboriginal culture for the Exmouth region and Ningaloo area.

Rangelands The rangelands in the study area support 15 pastoral leases. All pastoral leases are Crown land and are due to expire in All these leases will be renewed, either without boundary changes or with areas excluded from the renewed lease for public purposes.

The state government has commenced the process of excluding these areas from pastoral leases for inclusion in a new conservation and recreation reserve. The negotiation period to finalise the boundaries of the excluded areas from pastoral lease renewal is currently in process and due to conclude by the end of The Gascoyne coast regional strategy provided for the continuation of the remaining pastoral activity on the North West Cape. However, the coastal pastoral areas are more environmentally sensitive and have been identified in previous reports as required for the long-term management of high-value conservation and recreation areas.

The main rangelands activity in the study area is pastoralism, involving the production of cattle, sheep and wool. Production levels and stocking rates indicate the study area provides low yields. This situation is unlikely to improve in the near future. Diversification of pastoral activities includes approved tourism operations at Gnaraloo, Quobba and Giralia stations. Wildflower production also has been identified as a potential source of income for pastoralists in the study area.

There is no limit to diversification activities that may occur subject to environmental acceptability, receiving the necessary planning approvals, and obtaining diversification permits or leases. Settlement and pastoral development within the study area has resulted in a number of changes in the landscape over the past years.

The proliferation of annual pasture species has led to the replacement of native grasses by introduced species in some areas, with buffel grass being the most significant. Selective grazing and overgrazing by sheep, goats, cattle and native wildlife attracted to the artificial watering points have over- exposed areas to wind erosion through the loss of the native vegetation cover.

Trampling of vegetation and compaction of the earth also are problems at stock-watering points where large numbers of hard-hoofed animals congregate. It is important that the carrying and watering of stock are restricted to those areas capable of supporting this activity.

This generally excludes the sensitive coastal strip, which is extremely susceptible to wind erosion and subsequent dune destabilisation. This requirement also may provide other land use opportunities for areas not suitable for pastoral use, particularly along the coastal zone where access and utilisation for tourism activities is in high demand.

A committee formed to investigate pastoral issues in the Gascoyne Region has produced the Gascoyne-Murchison rangeland strategy This strategy made a number of recommendations aimed at ensuring that the industry, which is in relative decline in economic terms compared to other industries, becomes sustainable by the promotion of biodiversity, tourism and cultural values.

More importantly, they provide the background reference and principles on which these guidelines, as well as a number of policy statements, have been formulated. Coastal tourism: a manual for sustainable tourism provides proponents with a good source of additional information.

Climate The climate of the Ningaloo coast ranges from hot, arid conditions at the tip of Cape Range in the north to warm semi-arid conditions around Carnarvon in the south. The area experiences two seasons, a hot summer which extends from October to April and a mild winter from May to September. The average annual minimum temperature is 17oC and the average annual maximum temperature is 27oC. The coolest month is July and the hottest month is January, when the maximum temperature may reach over 45oC inland and to the north.

Rain in the area is associated with occasional, but intense, tropical cyclone activity January to March and the regular, but less intense, passage of cold fronts during winter. The synoptic wind patterns of the Ningaloo coast are largely controlled by the west to east movement of a belt of anticyclonic systems.

This anticyclonic belt undergoes a seasonal latitude migration resulting in predominantly south to south-westerly winds in summer, and east to south-easterly winds in winter. In addition, strong southerly sea breezes typically develop during summer afternoons.

Storm winds may arise from tropical cyclones and thunderstorms during summer and mid- latitude depressions in winter. Tropical cyclones may affect the region during summer and typically occur between January and March.

The direction and speed of the winds experienced during a tropical cyclone are highly variable and dependent on the path taken by the cyclone. These occur in the region every three to five years Department of Planning and Urban Development, The average annual frequency of tropical cyclones along the Ningaloo coast increases northward from a return interval of 0.

Geology and geomorphology Geomorphic districts The landforms of the study area are contained within seven geomorphic districts, as described by Payne et al. These geomorphic districts are summarised below. Cape Range The Cape Range district occupies the north- west portion of the study area and is comprised of deeply dissected limestone ranges and outwash plains. Cape Range is the most elevated part of the Ningaloo coast rising to m above sea level with intermittent drainage by a series of short parallel flowlines, which fan out near the coast to form outwash plains.

Cape Range may be described as an anticline structure resulting from tectonic uplift during the miocene and quaternary periods and the subsequent exposure of the underlying tertiary sediment. The deeply dissected plateau has created narrow valleys, spectacular gorges and extensive cave formations.

The land system adjacent to the rangeland system consists of gentle, stony upper slopes, sandy plains and outwash alluvial plains which receive run-off from the plateau. Coastal dunes The coastal dunes district is predominantly sedimentary surfaces located west of Lake MacLeod and extending north to Exmouth Gulf. Sedimentation within the district was intermittent and occurred mainly in a marine shelf environment.

These basement rocks are overlain with coastal dunes. Longitudinal dunes over limestone or calcrete at shallow depth occur on the undulating sandplain inland. Relatively young deposits occur closest to the coast and are characterised by large, arcuate and longitudinal coastal dunes with narrow calcareous swales.

Cliffs, wavecut platforms, narrow beaches and mobile sand drifts also feature in the dunal landform, where soils range from deep calcareous sands along the coast to siliceous sands of variable depth to the east. Giralia Range The Giralia Range district is located in the north-eastern and central portion of the study area and includes the anticline structures of the Giralia Range, Rough Range, Gnaraloo Range and numerous small folds adjacent to 24 Lake MacLeod.

The geological history of the district follows similar patterns as the Cape Range district with marine sedimentation, tectonic stress and the uplift and exposure of tertiary sediments. Lower in the profile, stony uplands, and undulating and sloping plains with limestone at variable depths predominate, with occasional outcropping. In lower-lying areas, the gently dissected limestone plains and broad outwash alluvial plains and fans are found as a result of run-off from the higher systems.

Lake MacLeod and saline plains Lake MacLeod and the flat saline plains on its periphery are subject to regular inundation. The shape of Lake MacLeod was largely determined by the gently dipping tertiary anticlines, which flank it to the east and west. Subsequent marine deposition, erosion and lake and aeolian deposition have formed the basis for three land systems, MacLeod, Chargoo and Warroora.

In general, the predominantly highly saline plains and tidal mudflats overlie lake-bed deposits of gypsiferous sands, with areas of shallow marine deposits and aeolian calcareous sand also common. Broad alluvial plains and lacustrine deposits of beaded gypsum with clay, silt and sand characterise the area to the north of Lake MacLeod. Slightly higher in the profile, flat saline plains with sluggish drainage tracts are located throughout the district.

Alluvial plains The alluvial plains district comprises mainly alluvial deposits with areas of red, aeolian sandbanks, dunes and occasional claypans. It is based on the main channels, floodplains and deltas of the Lyndon, Minilya and Gascoyne rivers. Sandplain and sand dune deposits, particularly in the area adjacent to the Gascoyne River, have been redistributed extensively or modified by floods. Narrow active floodplains following the middle course of the major rivers and creeks are flanked by broad active floodplains associated with the lower reaches.

Extensive alluvial plains outside the active floodplain are also common along with the supra tidal flats and tidal mangrove swamps which fringe the coastal areas of the alluvial plains. Winning plains The winning plains district extends inland from the Giralia Range and is located in the north-eastern part of the study area.

The district may broadly be described as undulating landscape with aeolian induced ridges and plains. The component landforms are quite diverse and numerous, including deposits of shale, sandstone, siltstone, sand and saline flats which have been subject to varying degrees of dissection. Ridge dunes The ridge dunes district, which covers the central eastern portion of the study area, features longitudinal and convergent sand ridges and flat to undulating inter-tidal plains of aeolian sand.

The medium-grained red quartz sand which characterises the district has been derived directly from the upper part of the lateritic profile. With appropriate management pastoral use is appropriate for this district. Summary The study area contains a diversity of land systems and landforms displaying features of regional conservation significance.

The most outstanding from an environmental perspective is Cape Range with its anticline structure, heavily dissected plateau, gorges, extensive cave systems and marine deposit characteristics inherently linked to the marine environment. Their value from an economic perspective is also significant due to the importance of horticulture to the region. Coastal geomorphology Coastal geomorphology is probably the most significant physical factor influencing land use planning on the coast.

The coastal geomorphology of the study area dictates that development should be confined to certain areas. The stability of coastal landform underpins the levels of use and development that can occur without causing environmental damage or degradation. The Ningaloo coast may be divided into six broad coastal sectors on the basis of their landforms and prevailing coastal processes.

These coastal sectors are described below. This sector has formed by the fanning out of sediments from the Gascoyne River, is low-lying, and characterised by mangroves, tidal inlets, bar deposits and samphire flats. Dune coast - Miaboolya Beach to Point Quobba The dune coast is a sedimentary coast that extends from Miaboolya Beach to Point Quobba and has largely formed under the influence of contemporary coastal processes. Along the southern part of this coastal sector, a large series of shore-parallel beach ridges occur and these beach ridges are backed by samphire flats.

Midway along this coastal 26 sector, the beach ridges taper off and give way to large parabolic dunefields mostly stabilised by dense vegetation; although, towards the north several large isolated active blow-outs occur. These dunefields extend northward to Point Quobba and inland from the shore to the samphire flats of Lake MacLeod. Further inland, away from the moist onshore seawind influence, the typical upward growing parabolic dunes of the immediate coast become transformed in the drier conditions to elongate migratory hairpin dune forms.

Cliff coast - Point Quobba to Three Mile Camp The cliff coast extends from Point Quobba to Three Mile Camp and is largely composed of low limestone cliffs with rocky shores and occasional pocket beaches. Active parabolic dunes are observed adjacent to several of the pocket beaches and these dunes often extend landward onto the plateau area. Relict vegetated parabolic dunes occur along the seaward margin of this plateau for much of this coastal sector. Within a short distance from the coast, the parabolic dunes on the plateau give way to older linear dunes desert dunes.

Dune and cuspate spit coast - Three Mile Camp to Exmouth The dune and cuspate spit coast extends from Three Mile Camp to Exmouth and is characterised by the presence of the Ningaloo Reef offshore and the development of several coastal dune formations. The Ningaloo Reef commences immediately north of Red Bluff where it borders the shoreline. The reef leaves the coast at Gnaraloo Point and becomes a fringing reef. A series of cuspate forelands have developed in the lee of the Ningaloo Reef due to the effects of wave refraction through gaps in the reef and circulation patterns within the lagoon Sanderson, The cuspate forelands are typically formed through the development of a sequence of beach ridge dune.

The cuspate forelands of Cape Farquhar and Alison Point are also characterised by high, bare, mobile dunes with vegetated parabolic dunes towards their northern ends. Shore- parallel beach ridges are often present adjacent to the shoreline and these are typically backed by recent parabolic dunes. Parabolic dunes are also often found at the northern downwind end of a sequence of beach ridges.

Bare mobile parabolic dunes are present throughout this area. Along this coastal sector, the sandy shoreline is regularly interrupted by short sections of low coastal cliffs and rocky shoreline. This coast is characterised by numerous intermittent incised streams which discharge eastwards from Cape Range. These creeks are highly seasonal and typically only flow following intensive rainfall events often associated with cyclone events.

The streams discharge onto a broad flat coastal plain and have resulted in the development of wide outwash fans of sand and cobble. The flood waters typically discharge to the Gulf at discrete locations often associated with low points in the coastal dunes.

At these locations, small delta deposits may form; however, these delta features are limited in size as the majority of the sediments are deposited landward of the coastal dunes on the coastal plain in the form of outwash fans. The shoreline is typically sandy and generally experiences very low wave energy conditions due to its sheltered location within Exmouth Gulf.

Mangrove coast - Learmonth to eastern boundary of Giralia Station The mangrove coast extends from Learmonth to beyond the eastern boundary of the study area. This coastal sector is located towards the southern end of the Exmouth Gulf and is characterised by the predominance of mangroves. These mangroves up to 16 different species form a fringing forest along the shore edge and are typically backed by wide tidal flats with areas of algal mats. A number of low islands are located offshore, many with fringing mangroves.

Hydrology Hydrology can be categorised into surface and groundwater features. Groundwater resources throughout the region are variable in terms of quality and availability and occur to a limited extent as superficial formations, but more commonly as confined aquifers. There is a lack of fresh water within the Ningaloo coast area.

Access to and availability of water will influence the level of development along many parts of the coast. Salinity content of groundwater varies across the study area. Much of the groundwater requires treatment by means of desalinisation, cooling, softening and the removal of iron to obtain potable drinking water. The limestone formations throughout the North West Cape are characterised by cave features with associated stygofauna specialised subterranean aquatic species , troglofauna specialised subterranean terrestrial species and contain underground streams and caverns Hamilton-Smith et al.

These underground streams are the current source of water supplies for the town of Exmouth. However, the greatest care must be taken to maintain the aquifer habitat, which includes endemic stygofauna and troglofauna, and control groundwater abstraction in a sustainable way. As the land is extremely sensitive, alternatives to septic tanks and leach drains outside the reticulated sewerage network should be encouraged.

Oceanography Tides and water levels The coast from Carnarvon to North West Cape is microtidal and experiences mixed predominantly diurnal tides; within Exmouth Gulf the tides are also microtidal but predominantly semi-diurnal. The mean spring tide range increases towards the north: at Carnarvon, the mean spring tide range is 0. Other processes driving water-level fluctuations along the Ningaloo coast include storm surge including cyclonic events , seiches and tsunamis.

Tropical cyclones, which may affect the region during summer, have the potential to cause storm surge events. The most recent category 5 cyclone to cross the Western Australian coast was Cyclone Vance 17—24 March The 10 year recurrence storm surge level at Carnarvon is 1. Based on this method, the sea level rise over the next years is estimated to be 0. When wave run-up is added to the surge level, it is considered that water levels in Carnarvon may reach from 3.

Seiches are long-period standing waves and occur inside the reef lagoon and cause a small amplitude periodic rise and fall of the water level at the shoreline. Seiching along the Ningaloo coast may occur between the shoreline and the reef line or alongshore within coastal embayments.

Tsunamis are caused by a sudden large displacement of the ocean floor or shores and may be initiated by a severe earthquake or volcanic eruption. Tsunamis may occur on the northern Western Australian coast approximately every 10 to 20 years due to earthquakes in the Indonesia region Environment Australia, On 3 June a tsunami caused temporary inundation of some nearshore facilities in Exmouth and Carnarvon. A similar event occurred in Western Australian Planning Commission, Wave climate The offshore wave climate of the Ningaloo coast is dominated by low swell waves generated by the Roaring 40s and the south- east trade wind belt of the Indian Ocean.

Visual estimates of offshore wave height, period and direction indicate that the offshore waves in summer generally arrive from the south and typically have a wave height of 1—2 m Port and Harbour Consultants, During winter, the offshore waves typically have a height of 2—3 m and the wave direction shifts towards a more south-westerly direction. Within Exmouth Gulf, the wave climate is considerably more sheltered than along the more exposed western coast.

Ningaloo Reef forms a fringing reef immediately north of Red Bluff and leaves the coast at Gnaraloo Bay and becomes a barrier reef. This reef results in considerable attenuation of the offshore wave energy through shoaling, refraction, diffraction and breaking processes across the reef crest and bottom friction across the reef lagoon prior to reaching the shoreline.

During summer, the regular sea-breezes superimpose a southerly sea wave climate onto the background swell. Extreme waves may also be generated in summer during tropical cyclones. Hindcasting of typical and extreme wave conditions along the shoreline of Bills Bay adjacent to the Coral Bay settlement has shown that, during non-cyclonic conditions, the median wave height is 0. Modelling of a storm with a five year recurrence interval indicated that the offshore and inshore wave heights were determined to be 6.

Currents The regional offshore water circulation is dominated by the Leeuwin current which is a southward flow of warm, relatively low-salinity water of tropical origin. The flow of the Leeuwin current is generally greatest between autumn and winter and is greatly attenuated by wind stress in summer.

Typically, the persistent southerly swell waves break on the reef and result in the pumping of water over the reef crest and into the lagoon. This generally results in the generation of northward flowing circulation cells inside the lagoon which exit via the reef passages Hearn and Parker, Observations from Bateman Bay indicated typical current velocities of 0.

Observations by Hearn and Parker at Osprey Bay km north of the Coral Bay settlement indicate that the lagoon in this region has a flushing time of less than 24 hours. The lagoon flushing to the south of Osprey Bay is expected to be less influenced by tidal currents than at Osprey Bay due to the reduced tidal range towards the south.

Within Exmouth Gulf strong tidal currents may occur with spring-tide velocities in the deeper waters of 0. Flora The vegetation of the Carnarvon Basin area mainly is dominated by arid eremaean perennial shrub association.

The native flora exhibit a wide range of growth forms and features, but are similar in that all are capable of survival as adult plants and seeds through adverse seasonal conditions. Whenever seasonal conditions are favourable, complementary floras of drought-avoiding, short-lived herbs and grasses develop. Hummock grasslands with sparse overstoreys of trees or shrubs are predominant on dune fields, sandy plains and limestones in the north, but these decline southwards and are virtually absent south of the Gascoyne River.

Acacia shrublands are very widespread on the hills and stony plains. Shrublands and low woodlands dominated by Acacia species gradually replace the hummock grasses on the sand sheets and dune fields in the eastern part of the study area. The floodplains and alluvial delta areas of the lower Gascoyne River are characterised by extensive plains of Gascoyne bluebush, and other low halophytic shrublands.

In most places, such plains feature low banks, dunes or small sheets of red sand on which the chenopods largely are replaced by Acacia shrublands, with variable understoreys of low shrubs and grasses, including the introduced buffel grass. The mangrove fringes are dominated by Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa and occur mainly in the coastal area adjacent to Carnarvon and within the Exmouth Gulf.

The highly productive mangrove areas mitigate storm surge damage and provide shoreline stability. The diversity and richness of the floral species in the Cape Range is significant with 46 per cent of the known species of the Carnarvon botanical district occurring throughout. This is unusual as limestone soils in arid areas generally are recognized as species poor. Settlement and pastoral development over the past years have introduced change upon the native vegetation with the depasturing of the land by sheep, goats and cattle and the establishment of stock watering points over areas previously grazed only by native invertebrates and small populations of marsupials.

Buffel grass is displacing Triodia throughout many of the pastoral areas and a proliferation of weed species around the towns of Exmouth and Carnarvon also is evident. Fauna The fauna within the study area broadly can be classified as vertebrate, invertebrate and subterranean species. Vertebrates Terrestrial A bio-geographical description of vertebrate fauna recently undertaken for the Cape Range Kendrick, together with published management plans Department of Conservation and Land Management, provide a useful overview of the study area.

Existing information indicates that in the order of 38 species of native ground mammal, species of reptile, five amphibians and more than species of birds are found in the study area. Mammals have not been intensively or systematically sampled and it is possible that populations thought to be locally or regionally extinct may be located in the study area. All key mammal species, with the exception of the Black-footed Rock Wallaby and Central Rock Rat, are found elsewhere in the arid and semi-arid north-west of Western Australia.

Three reptile species recorded in the study area, the green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles, are listed as threatened. The Cape Range is also a hotspot for non-marine mollusc endemism. Introduced species include domestic stock such as sheep, goats, horses and cattle, together with cats, dogs, foxes, rabbits and mice.

Goats are established in feral populations. The avifauna of the study area reflects the range of habitats from the Cape southwards to Carnarvon with its narrow coastal plains, dissected limestone uplands, sand plains and sand ridges, extensive inter-tidal flats and large areas of mangrove.

The bird fauna generally is representative of the semi-arid north-west coast and hinterlands. CALM studies suggest that more than bird species are likely to utilise the study area as permanent or temporary habitat. Migratory birds, some protected by international agreements, also are known seasonally to inhabit the mangrove and inter-tidal areas around Carnarvon and the Exmouth Gulf.

Marine Ningaloo Reef is the only fringing coral reef in Australia and supports a very diverse range of marine species. The diversity of habitats provide for an extensive range of marine species, including over species of coral, species of mollusc and species of fish in the marine park alone.

The reef is famous internationally for its diving and aggregations of marine species, including whale sharks, turtles, dugongs, sharks, whales and manta rays. Invertebrates There is a vast array of invertebrate fauna inhabiting the study area and there is very little information regarding their regional significance. The conservation status of most invertebrate species is unknown, as the majority is yet to be described by science. Subterranean Subterranean animals throughout the study area are concentrated on the North West Cape where unique geological features and climatic influences have created an extraordinary range of underground habitats.

At least 16 genera are known to be endemic to the Cape Range formation Humphreys, There are various classes of subterranean fauna, depending upon their underground habitats. The two main types that live in the area are stygofauna specialised subterranean aquatic species and troglobites specialised subterranean terrestrial species. The stygofauna, or obligatory groundwater inhabitants, inhabit a range of freshwater to brackish water caverns and fissures in the limestone of the coastal plain.

The study area contains a great diversity of stygofauna, which is endemic to the Ningaloo coast and the North West Cape. Genetic differences also exist between the east and west coastal plain populations, which is important in terms of biodiversity. Troglobites have evolved to be totally dependent upon cave environments and have many adaptations in common.

They are usually eyeless, lack pigmentation and have enhanced non-optic sense organs such as long antennae and limbs. They occur in caves mostly in Tulki limestone in the Cape Range and on the coastal plain.

With at least 55 species of troglofauna, the North West Cape has some of the most diverse karst fauna in the world. It supports a rich troglobite and troglophile arachnid and myriapod fauna population which comprises approximately half of the known terrestrial subterranean fauna of Australia. The caves and subterranean waterways of the study area are of critical importance in maintaining the local troglobitic fauna.

Research regarding the diversity and importance of the subterranean fauna within the study area still is quite limited at this stage, however it is sufficient to recognise their regional significance and ensure their protection though appropriate management measures. Any major hydrological changes would be a threat to both types of cave fauna. Management of karst at Cape Range may be guided by the local adoption of international policies and practices such as International union for conservation of nature and natural resources guidelines for cave and karst protection Watson et al.

Areas of environmental significance Ningaloo Marine Park Ningaloo Marine Park presently covers an area of ha and includes waters under state and Commonwealth jurisdiction, although it is managed as one area by CALM. Its proposed extension is shown in figure 4. In addition, the body of water between Gnaraloo Bay and Red Bluff is being investigated for possible inclusion in the Ningaloo Marine Park as part of the review of the current marine park management plan.

The Ningaloo Marine Park possesses a range of areas of national and international significance. Its waters have been divided into the following zones. It is the only fringing coral reef in Australia, forming a discontinuous barrier to the coast. Throughout the world, coral reefs are under threat; therefore it is important that Ningaloo, one of the most pristine coral reef systems in the world, is protected.

The reef is located very close to the shoreline and any shore- based development potentially may have more significant impacts than in the case of the Great Barrier Reef. Coral reefs can suffer severe storm and cyclone damage. This natural disturbance is important in maintaining coral species diversity by destroying the faster-growing branching corals and allowing slower-growing massive corals to survive.

However, coral reefs are highly sensitive and severely affected by other disturbances such as sedimentation, increased nutrient levels in the water which favour the growth of algae over corals, and changes in salinity. It is recognised that the Ningaloo Reef has nationally significant conservation, recreation, commercial, educational, historical and research values that are worth preserving for future generations.

Mangrove tidal flats The Gascoyne delta, littoral landforms and near shore marine environments close to Carnarvon and extending north and south from the town are important mangrove and seagrass habitats. The inter-tidal mangroves stabilise the shoreline and mitigate wave and tidal action. The mangroves also are known to support large numbers of habitat-specific waterbirds, some of which are migratory species protected by international agreements. On a regional basis, mangrove habitats are recognised as areas of high biological productivity, and as an important medium for nutrient exchange between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

The park comprises a heavily dissected limestone range and a fringing coastal plain directly adjacent to the northern part of the Ningaloo Marine Park. The Cape Range is the only elevated limestone range on the north-western coast of Western Australia. The impressive weathered limestone range has plateaus of up to m high. The North West Cape is an exceptionally rich environment displaying significant scientific, cultural, biological, scenic and recreational attributes.

It will be developed to accommodate public recreation within its capacity for long-term stability and maintenance of its resources. It generally is accessed from the north via Yardie Creek Road, which is sealed from Exmouth and most of the way through the park.

It is unsealed thereafter. The State charges an entry fee. The area contains extensive karst formations and has been recognised as a potential key component of any world heritage area nomination. Karst is formed by the percolation of water through limestone sinkholes and the subsequent dissolution of minerals. The process occurs over a long period of time and is linked closely to the occurrence and distribution of rare and internationally significant species of subterranean fauna.

Karst landscape also have development implications as their inherent properties constrain engineering works and waste disposal. The karst systems of the Cape Range support many relictual taxa of international conservation significance. The closest relatives of these taxa indicate that the ancestry of the Cape Range stygofauna is linked to northern Gondwana and the Tethys Sea, which once separated the landmasses of the southern and northern continents.

These species include troglobitic fish, shrimps, ostracods, amphipods, remipedes, plus many other families and orders of terrestrial and aquatic species. Threatening processes include pollution townsite, chemical, sedimentation , mining direct impacts and pollution and feral animals feral fish have been found in cave systems near Exmouth.

Knowledge of subterranean fauna of the Cape Range is based on limited surveys. The biological knowledge of subterranean systems of the Cape Range is very poor, but given the high level of endemism and lack of research, it is highly likely that as yet undiscovered taxa exist.

The Bundera Sinkhole is situated within the Department of Defence military exercise area to the south of Cape Range National Park, and comprises a rich stygobitic fauna assemblage composed primarily of crustaceans, but including a blind fish. Jurabi and Bundegi coastal parks Two areas of coastal land at the northern end of the North West Cape are reserved for the purpose of recreation and coastal management and are vested and managed jointly by CALM and the Shire of Exmouth.

The reserves consist of holocene coastal deposits forming a complex of dune and beach sequences with large dune ridges and occasional active blowouts, and significant turtle nesting beaches. The dunes are susceptible to disturbance and a management plan to ensure their long-term protection has been prepared. Numerous tidal channels extend landward from the sub-littoral zone and carry tidal waters into the interior.

The channels and inter-channel areas on the seaward margin of the flats within the study area are bordered by extensive mangrove thickets and terrains of algal mat. These associations are key elements in nutrient recycling for organisms, which inhabit the North-West Shelf. The tidal channel system also is inhabited by juveniles of many marine species, including the commercially important prawns.

The gulf is relatively sheltered but subject to the influences of tropical cyclones and storm surge. Sediment movement along the gulf shoreline indicates a low net littoral drift to the south in the vicinity of Exmouth and Learmonth with evidence of northward longshore sediment transport in the north-eastern part of the gulf. Recent initiatives now recommend the inclusion of the Exmouth Gulf mangroves as a marine reserve.

Lake MacLeod Lake MacLeod is an extensive salt lake and pan system which provides habitat for large numbers of waterbirds, some of which are migratory. The surface of the lake is normally dry but along the north-western shore, there are large irregular ponds which contain seawater of near-normal salinity.

Seawater continually wells up from the subterranean caverns and recharges the ponds, which are bordered by mangroves and contain fish and other marine organisms. The environments associated with the permanent wetlands are of outstanding conservation value. This site has long been considered appropriate for potential Ramsar listing. Dampier Salt, operating under a mineral lease agreement, evaporates and extracts salt from the southern part of Lake MacLeod.

Babbage and Whitlock islands Babbage and Whitlock islands are located on the western side of Carnarvon and are separated from the town by the south arm of the Gascoyne River, known as the Fascine. The islands are partially protected by a conservation reserve, which protects the principal areas of conservation value such as the mangroves, wet samphire and mobile dunes, and the sandy inter-tidal shorelines at the southern end of Whitlock Island.

Murion islands The two elongated, vegetated Murion islands, lie at the western end of the Rowley Shelf. The two islands are Crown reserves for recreation and the conservation of flora and fauna jointly vested in the Shire of Exmouth and the Conservation Commission of Western Australia.

The islands are managed in accordance with the prepared management plan. The islands waters have prolific coral growth and are important turtle and seabird nesting rookeries. The islands together with the adjacent Sunday Island are experiencing increasing recreational usage and are highly prospective for hydrocarbons and exploration is anticipated to increase in this region in the next decade.

Dave, are you sure your name is not Lloyd Braun? Is your phone even connected? Serenity now Dave and if that don't work , try Hoochie Mama. Doesn't really outline anything unfortunately Dave. It's just the laying of the footings of the Empire State Building of bullshit that is being erected in an attempt to justify the development of the coast.

Timmy and Paul knew this day was coming , perhaps this is the reason why they've chosen to milk the land for everything it's worth by running feral or rangeland goats off 30 mile mile just behind the Bluff , and 3 mile mill just behind 3 mile camp. The infestation of feral goats began back in and was no accident , it'was planned. Goats have been imported to enhance bloodline and higher quality meat.

This is common practice all over WA. Planned destruction of our fragile coastline. These 2 self serving pricks have been profiting from it. Tim Meecham deserves a special mention because he put out a Master plan to gain government and public support for developing the Bluff. He made many promises to the environment in the Masterplan , and to reduce goats numbers.

This Masterplan reads in as nothing but a pack of lies and broken promises. No mistake , this was planned and greed was the motivation. Red Bluff and 3 mile are special tourism leases. According to the Land Administration act a section 79 special tourism lease differs from a section pastoral lease where a leaseholder is expected to use best environmental pastoral management practices and to maintain indigenous pasture.

A section 79 special tourism lease has no such requirements. A get out of jail free card! Can anyone else see how ridiculous this is? These pastoralists even have the hide to call themselves custodians of this pristine coastline. They are the worst threat to this once pristine environment is continuing goat farming! Checkout and share ' Friends of the Bluff ' fb page , lots of photos and facts about what these greedy , self serving pricks have done to our coastline.

The land is actually what's called Crown land unless its subject to native title where it becomes unallocated Crown land. The and bed camping nodes have been in existence for 8 years or so Stu! The number and is in fact just a head number for the amount of campers that could be accommodated.

The coastline is earmarked for low key developmenot so dont mislead people in to thinking huge hotels and the like in the future. After all its classed now to 40m above high tide as a world heritage from Ningaloo to the Bluff! Just read the Bluff master plan. At least the Meechams get the idea of the place. Sure there is plans for a Valley "village " of a dozen a com units , more tents up the top and to move the shop but the rest seems the same.

Of course I want nothing to change about the joint. I'm not even into the shack upgrades, but at least they recognise the surfing culture and try to retain it. Better than some Chinese developer that has never visited and doesn't care about the joint just raping it for a dollar and dislocating the culture that's so unique.

The Meechams live Quobba, can't dispute the fact. Can't imagine some white shoe developer sucking cans in the sun between heats of the Bluff Cup at the end of each season like Tim does. Let alone dry docking onto the rocks for an extra point or two.

Unfortunately blowin you don't seem to understand the big picture. Exmouth to the Bluff is already world heritage to 40m above high tide there will be no Chinese developers. Whatever the government do will be low key. All of that cap in the Master plan was just a proposal , he had to give the government something.

Who would build huge structures and water slides in to the. Look what happened to his eco tents right on the edge of the hill. Now the frames just pollute the vista like a sentinal to the thoughtless act in the first place. Sorry but he's got no fckn idea whatsoever , clueless in envirionmental management. Time for a change. Some times it's better the devil you know. Just because development is low key doesn't mean it will respect the culture that exists there.

What's wrong with the tents? I reckon they're perfect - unoccupied and unobtrusive. Placed at the top of the hill so they're out of sight and don't upset the egalitarian vibe down the beach. Of course no tents would be the best option I'm just guessing his motivation there completely, but I'd imagine that it's probably a case of shit or get off the pot. No no no , C'mon better the devil Here's a fact The Bluff is the only managed parcel of land on Quota. It also is the most degraded price of land on Quobra.

Google maps prove this. Blowin , you just refuse to get it! Culture you must be joking I was once part of a culture that cared for the Bluff. That culture ended on the 1st of January when Timmy took over from Oggie and Sue. I think we are arguing the same point here mate, but I'd dispute the fact that the bluff is the most degraded part of Quobba Take a look up behind 21 mile.

It looks like the surface of Mars. Nothing is put back in to the Bluff whatsoever. They don't have any environmental management plan whatsoever. There's a mill at 21 mile 28 mile and 30 mile. I know this country and coast as well as anyone. Would it be fair to say that from lunchboxes to the Bluff is the most degraded on Quobba? These are the 3 mills he's uses for feral goats.

Feral goats are a declared pests in WA. There's heaps of bodgy legislation and guidelines in the act that facilitate the farming of these pests. Australia is the world's leading exporter of range land or feral goats. But why do it on our pristine coastline?

So what would your preferred outcome for the joint be then? National Park? Give me an example of somewhere you'd like replicated. Hey Blowin! Educate yourself on the matter and perhaps we can revisit this when you have , sorry no offence. It's good you've got some information.

Maybe you could share it. It seems we're both on the side of protecting the coast from development so there's no need to get adversarial. You seem to think if it's not Quobba managing the Bluff some Chinese developer will take over. This can't happen. Read the latest coastal strategy for Exmouth to Carnarvon. It's all about low key camping and looking after the environment. Hopefully a lot more camping opportunities will come out of this , and the same price across the board for all of the coast.

Quobba may even have more camping spots than how it is now ,the Bluff and the homestead are the only two. You may even find the camping fee's reducing at the Bluff And 3 mile , they're quite excessive now for what's actually provided , don't you think? Hopefully a lot more camping opportunities? I'm not into that at all. I like the way you can explore the whole Quobba coast without much chance of seeing another person. Preferably I'd like zero change in regards to camping arrangements.

That's for An absolute ocean front shelter. Or you could get a 3M x 3M patch of grass in a caravan park in town for the same price with another tent three feet away. No way things will ever get cheaper. You might think that the Bluffs golden years are behind it but compared to the future the golden years are now.

That's the sort of development that will happen. I wrote a post on another recent thread about the possible future for Quobba as witnessed at the Blowholes that is about to occur. The thread was on cyclone Olweyn destroying Gnaraloo if you'd care to read it.

How can you throw the blowholes in to this? You don't seem to want to talk or even acknowledge the huge negative impact Tims poor land management decisions have had on the area. On this alone his ass should be booted off that lease ASAP. I've even had the pleasure of him trying to brow beat me on how much I don't know how the land works.

He denied goats were a problem preferring to blame the Native herbivores like wallabies and kangaroos for the damage. He lost my respect that day , just barefaced lie and denials. Where do you think the gubbbement stand on the road Canaima Apartments toivottaa sinut tervetulleeksi Puerto Ricoon. Oletko yrityksen omistaja tai johtaja? Skip to main content. Canaima Apartments - arvostelut Puerto Rico.

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