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In this study, we aim to improve our understanding of CO 2 dynamics biotic and abiotic in Antarctic Dry Valley soils using long-term automated measurements of soil CO 2 surface flux and soil profile concentration at several sites, often at sub-diel frequency. We hypothesize that soil CO 2 variations are driven primarily by environmental factors affecting CO 2 solubility in soil solution, mainly temperature, and that these processes may even overprint biologic production in representative Dry Valley soils.
Monitoring of all sites revealed only one likely biotic CO 2 production event, lasting three weeks during the Austral summer and reaching fluxes of 0. Under more typical low flux conditions sampling campaigns. Subsurface CO 2 monitoring and a lab-controlled Antarctic soil simulation experiment confirmed that abiotic processes are capable of dominating soil CO 2 variability. Diel temperature cycles crossing the freezing boundary revealed a dual abiotic cycle of solubility cycling and gas exclusion from ice formation observed only by high temporal frequency measurements 30 min.
This work demonstrates a need for a numerical model to partition the dynamic abiotic processes underlying any biotic CO 2 production in order to understand potential climate-change induced increases in microbial productivity in terrestrial Antarctica. Southern Ocean CO 2 sink: the contribution of the sea ice. The sea ice changes from a transient source to a sink for atmospheric CO 2. We upscale these observations to the whole Antarctic sea ice cover using the NEMO-LIM3 large-scale sea ice -ocean and provide first esti- mates of spring and summer CO 2 uptake from the atmosphere Over the spring- summer period, the Antarctic sea ice cover is a net sink of atmospheric CO 2 of 0.
Sea ice then contributes significantly to the sink of CO 2 of the Southern Ocean The decrease from winter to summer of p CO 2 in the brines is driven by dilution with melting ice , dissolution of carbonate crystals, and net primary production. As the ice warms, its permeability increases, allowing CO 2 transfer Although salt rejection from sea ice is a key process in deep-water formation in ice -covered seas, the concurrent rejection of CO 2 and the subsequent effect on air-sea CO 2 exchange have received little attention.
We review the mechanisms by which sea ice directly and indirectly controls the air This sea CO 2 dry cleaning: Acoustic cavitation and other mechanisms to induce mechanical action. High pressure carbon dioxide CO 2 is a potential solvent for textile dry cleaning.
However, the particulate soil e. Since cavitation has been proven to be beneficial in other CO 2 cleaning applications, this study aims to investigate the. Fits to the absorption profile using laboratory spectra enable categorization according to the degree of thermal processing of the ice matrix that contains the CO 2.
The majority of YSOs in our sample 20 out of 28 are found to be consistent with a combination of polar H 2 O-rich and nonpolar CO-rich ices at low temperature; the remainder exhibit profile structure consistent with partial crystallization as the result of significant heating.
Ice -phase column densities of CO 2 are determined and compared with those of other species. Lines of sight with crystallization signatures in their spectra are found to be systematically deficient in solid-phase CO, as expected if CO is being sublimated in regions where the ices are heated to crystallization temperatures. Significant variation is found in the CO 2 abundance with respect to both H 2 O the dominant ice constituent and total dust column quantified by the extinction, A V.
YSOs in our sample display typically higher CO 2 concentrations independent of evidence for thermal processing in comparison to quiescent regions of the prototypical cold molecular cloud. This suggests that enhanced CO 2 production is driven by photochemical reactions in proximity to some YSOs, and that photoprocessing and thermal processing may occur independently. Ikaite crystal distribution in Arctic winter sea ice and implications for CO 2 system dynamics.
Rysgaard, S. We report unique observations of ikaite in unmelted ice and vertical profiles of ikaite abundance and concentration in sea ice for the crucial season of winter. Ice was examined from two locations: a 1 m thick land-fast ice site and a 0. Direct measurements of total alkalinity TA in surface layers fell within the same range as ikaite concentration whereas TA concentrations in bottom layers were twice as high. This depth-related discrepancy suggests interior ice processes where ikaite crystals form in surface sea ice layers and partly dissolved in bottom layers.
From these findings and model calculations we relate sea ice formation and melt to observed p CO 2 conditions in polar surface waters, and hence, the air-sea CO 2 flux. A rapid transition from ice covered CO 2 —rich waters to a biologically mediated CO 2 sink in the eastern Weddell Gyre. Ultimately the f CO 2 difference across the sea surface drives air-sea fluxes of CO 2. Nonetheless, the ice cover largely prevented outgassing of CO 2 to the atmosphere.
Despite the tendency of the surfacing WDW to cause CO 2 supersaturation, the Weddell Gyre may well be a CO 2 sink on an annual basis due to this effective mechanism involving ice cover and ensuing biological f CO 2 reduction. Dissolution of calcium carbonate CaCO3 in melting sea ice may play a minor role in this rapid reduction of surface water f CO 2. Experimental evidence for carbonate precipitation and CO 2 degassing during sea ice formation.
Chemical and stable carbon isotopic modifications during the freezing of artificial seawater were measured in four 4 m 3 tank incubations. Three of the four incubations were inoculated with a nonaxenic Antarctic diatom culture. The 18 days of freezing resulted in 25 to 27 cm thick ice sheets overlying the residual seawater. The ice phase was characterized by a decrease in temperature from A systematic drop in pH and salinity-normalized C T by up to 0.
Calculations based on the direct pH and C T measurements indicated a steady increase in the in situ concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide CO 2 aq with time and increasing salinity within the ice sheet, partly due to changes in the dissociation constants of carbonic acid in the low temperature-high salinity range within sea ice.
The combined effects of temperature and salinity on the solubility of CO 2 over the range of conditions encountered during this study was a slight net decrease in the equilibrium CO 2 aq concentration as a result of the salting-out overriding the increase in solubility with decreasing temperature. When all physico. Investigation into solar drying of potato: effect of sample geometry on drying kinetics and CO 2 emissions mitigation. Drying experiments have been performed with potato cylinders and slices using a laboratory scale designed natural convection mixed-mode solar dryer.
The present investigation showed that amongst all the mathematical models studied, the Modified Page model was in good agreement with the experimental drying data for both potato cylinders and slices. A mathematical framework has been proposed to estimate the performance of the food dryer in terms of net CO 2 emissions mitigation potential along with unit cost of CO 2 mitigation arising because of replacement of different fossil fuels by renewable solar energy. For each fossil fuel replaced, the gross annual amount of CO 2 as well as net amount of annual CO 2 emissions mitigation potential considering CO 2 emissions embodied in the manufacture of mixed-mode solar dryer has been estimated.
The CO 2 mitigation potential and amount of fossil fuels saved while drying potato samples were found to be the maximum for coal followed by light diesel oil and natural gas. The elaboration and interpretation of the data, aimed to estimate electromagnetic properties of surface layers, has been performed in terms of permittivity.
The theory of electromagnetic scattering from fractal surfaces, and the estimation of geometric parameters from topographic data by Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter MOLA which was one of five instruments on board the Mars Global Surveyor MGS spacecraft, has been used. A deep analysis of inversion has been made on all Mars and extended to the South Polar Caps in order to extract the area with a permittivity constant of CO 2 ice. Several corrections have been applied to the data, moreover the calibration of the signal requires the determination of a constant that takes into account the power gain due to the radar system and the surface in order to compensate the power losses due to the orbitographic phenomena.
Figure 1 b is the corresponding geologic map. The comparison between the two maps indicates that the area with probable buried CO 2 overlaps Hesperian and Amazonian polar units Hp, Hesperian plains-forming deposits marked by narrow sinuous, anabranching ridges and irregular depressions, and. Ikaite crystal distribution in winter sea ice and implications for CO 2 system dynamics.
Direct measurements of total alkalinity TA in surface layers fell within the same range as ikaite concentration, whereas TA concentrations in the lower half of the sea ice were twice as high. This depth-related discrepancy suggests interior ice processes where ikaite crystals form in surface sea ice layers and partly dissolve in layers below.
Melting of sea ice and dissolution of observed concentrations of ikaite would result in meltwater with a p CO 2 of CO 2. Effects of sea- ice and biogeochemical processes and storms on under- ice water f CO 2 during the winter-spring transition in the high Arctic Ocean: Implications for sea-air CO 2 fluxes. Over this period, the ship drifted with four different ice floes and covered the deep Nansen Basin, the slopes north of Svalbard, and the Yermak Plateau.
This unique winter-to-spring data set includes the first winter-time under- ice water f CO 2 observations in this region. Although the sea ice partly prevented direct CO 2 exchange between ocean and atmosphere, frequently occurring leads and breakup of the ice sheet promoted sea-air CO 2 fluxes. The CO 2 sink varied between 0.
The maximum sea-air CO 2 fluxes occurred during storm events in February and June. In winter, the main drivers of the change in under- ice water f CO 2 were dissolution of CaCO3 ikaite and vertical mixing. In June, in addition to these processes, primary production and sea-air CO 2 fluxes were important. The cumulative loss due to CaCO3 dissolution of 0. Modelling the effects of ice -sheet activity on CO 2 outgassing by Icelandic volcanoes.
Glacial cycles may play a significant role in mediating the flux of magmatic CO 2 between the Earth's mantle and atmosphere. In Iceland, it is thought that late-Pleistocene deglaciation led to a significant volcanic pulse, evidenced by increased post-glacial lava volumes and changes in melt chemistry consistent with depressurization. Investigating the extent to which glacial activity may have affected volcanic CO 2 emissions from Iceland, and crucially over what timescale, requires detailed knowledge of how the magma system responded to the growth and collapse of the ice -sheet before and after the LGM.
To investigate this, we coupled a model of magma generation and transport with a history of ice -sheet activity. Our results show that the emplacement and removal of the LGM ice -sheet likely led to two significant pulses of magmatic CO 2. The first, and most significant of these, is associated with ice -sheet growth and occurs as the magma system recovers from glacial loading. This recovery happens from the base of the melting region upwards, producing a pulse of CO 2 rich magma that is predicted to reach the surface around 20 ka after the loading event, close in time to the LGM.
The second peak in CO 2 output occurs abruptly following deglaciation as a consequence of increased rates of melt generation and transport in the shallow mantle. Although these post-glacial melts are relatively depleted in CO 2 , the increase in magma flux leads to a short-lived period of elevated CO 2 emissions.
Our results therefore suggest a negative feedback, whereby ice -sheet growth produces a delayed pulse of magmatic CO 2 , which, in addition to increased geothermal heat flux, may contribute towards driving deglaciation, which itself then causes further magmatism and CO 2 outgassing.
This model is consistent with the seismic structure of the asthenosphere below Iceland, and the established compositional and volumetric trends for sub- and post-glacial volcanism in Iceland. These trends show that.
Solar radiation management SRM geoengineering has been proposed as one means of helping avoid the occurrence of dangerous climate change and undesirable state transitions 'tipping points' in the Earth system. The irreversible melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet is a case in point-a state transition that could occur as a result of CO 2 -driven elevated global temperatures, and one leading to potentially catastrophic sea-level rise.
SRM schemes such as the creation of a 'sunshade' or injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere could reduce incoming solar radiation, and in theory balance, in a global mean, the greenhouse warming resulting from elevated concentrations of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Previous work has highlighted that a geoengineered world would have: warming towards the poles, cooling in the tropics, and a reduction in the global hydrological cycle, which may have important implications for the Greenland Ice Sheet.
Using a fully coupled global climate model in conjunction with an ice sheet model, we assess the consequences for the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet of the reorganization of climate patterns by the combination of high CO 2 and geoengineering. We find that Greenland surface temperature and precipitation anomalies, compared to the pre-industrial situation, decrease almost linearly with increasing levels of SRM geoengineering, but that these combine to create a highly non-linear response of the ice sheet.
The substantial melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet predicted for four times pre-industrial CO 2 levels is prevented in our model with only a partial application of SRM, and hence without having to fully restore the global average temperature back to pre-industrial levels. This suggests that the degree of SRM geoengineering required to mitigate the worst impacts of greenhouse warming, such as sea-level rise, need not be as extensive as generally assumed.
Observations of the southern residual CO 2 cap of Mars reveal a wide range of landforms including flat-floored quasi-circular pits with steep walls dubbed Swiss-cheese features. The residual CO 2 ice cap is up to 10m thick and underlain by an involatile basement, it also contains layers roughly 2m thick representing different accumulation episodes in the recent past.
Changes in the appearance of the residual ice between the Mariner 9 and Viking missions indicate that the top-most layer was deposited in that time-frame, soon after the global dust storm of The spatial density of the Swiss-cheese features, and the rate at which they expand, mean that it is unlikely that any part of the residual ice cap is older than a few centuries.
Given this, we may ask: how can there be a residual cap present today for us to observe? To answer this and other questions we have developed a model to examine the evolution of a CO 2 ice landscape. This model reproduces the morphologies and expansion rates seen in the actual residual CO 2 ice cap.
Our model results indicate that the fate of CO 2 ice surfaces is controlled by their surface roughness. Surface roughness always increases with time, which results in an unstable situation. When the surface roughness exceeds a critical point small pits can begin to develop. The walls of these pits rapidly steepen and begin retreating which enlarges and deepens the pit. This situation always occurs even if the surface of the CO 2 slab has a high enough albedo to have a net mass gain each year.
Once these pits begin expanding they quickly erode the entire ice slab. When the underlying non- CO 2 material is exposed, it will not frost over again if Mars were to repeat like clockwork every year. We conclude that interannual climatic variability is actually a requirement for the continued existence of a. Interannual observations and quantification of summertime H2O ice deposition on the Martian CO 2 ice south polar cap.
Three years later, the OMEGA instrument was used to discover water ice deposited during southern summer on the polar cap Langevin et al. However, temporal and spatial variations of these water ice signatures have remained unexplored, and the origins of these water deposits remains an important scientific question. To investigate this question, we have used observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars CRISM instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MRO spacecraft of the southern cap during austral summer over four Martian years to search for variations in the amount of water ice.
We report below that for each year we have observed the cap, the magnitude of the H2O ice signature on the southern cap has risen steadily throughout summer, particularly on the west end of the cap. The spatial extent of deposition is in disagreement with the current best simulations of deposition of water ice on the south polar cap Montmessin et al. This increase in water ice signatures is most likely caused by deposition of atmospheric H2O ice and a set of unusual conditions makes the quantification of this transport flux using CRISM close to ideal.
This amount of H2O ice deposition is 0. This deposition process may also have implications for the formation and stability of the southern CO 2 ice cap, and therefore play a significant role in the climate budget of modern day Mars. Full Text Available This work explores the feasibility of applying in situ Raman spectroscopy for the online monitoring of the supercritical carbon dioxide SC- CO 2 drying of fruits.
Specifically, we investigate two types of fruits: mango and persimmon. The drying experiments were carried out inside an optical accessible vessel at 10 MPa and K. The Raman spectra reveal: i the reduction of the water from the fruit slice and ii the change of the fruit matrix structure during the drying process. Two different Raman excitation wavelengths were compared: nm and nm. With respect to the quality of the obtained spectra, the nm excitation wavelength was superior due to a higher signal-to-noise ratio and due to a resonant excitation scheme of the carotenoid molecules.
It was found that the absorption of CO 2 into the fruit matrix enhances the extraction of water, which was expressed by the obtained drying kinetic curve. This work explores the feasibility of applying in situ Raman spectroscopy for the online monitoring of the supercritical carbon dioxide SC- CO 2 drying of fruits.
Evaluation of supercritical CO 2 dried cellulose aerogels as nano-biomaterials. Cellulose is the renewable, biodegradable and abundant resource and is suggested as an alternative material to silica due to the high price and environmental load of silica. The first step for cellulose aerogel production is to dissolve cellulose, and hydrated calcium thiocyanate molten salt is one of the most effective solvents for preparing porous material.
Cellulose aerogels were prepared from dissolved cellulose samples of different degree of polymerization DP and drying methods, and tested with shrinkage, density and mechanical strength. Supercritical CO 2 dried cellulose aerogels shrank less compared to freeze- dried cellulose aerogels, whereas the densities were increased according to the DP increases in both cellulose aerogels.
Furthermore, scanning electron microscope SEM images showed that the higher DP cellulose aerogels were more uniform with micro-porous structure. Regarding the mechanical strength of cellulose aerogels, supercritical CO 2 dried cellulose aerogels with higher molecular weight were much more solid. Phillips, Roger J. Shallow Radar soundings from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal a buried deposit of carbon dioxide CO 2 ice within the south polar layered deposits of Mars with a volume of to 12, cubic kilometers, about 30 times that previously estimated for the south pole residual cap.
The deposit occurs within a stratigraphic unit that is uniquely marked by collapse features and other evidence of interior CO 2 volatile release. Atmospheric CO 2 variations over the last three glacial-interglacial climatic cycles deduced from the Dome Fuji deep ice core, Antarctica using a wet extraction technique. A deep ice core drilled at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica was analyzed for the CO 2 concentration using a wet extraction method in order to reconstruct its atmospheric variations over the past kyr, which includes three full glacial-interglacial climatic cycles, with a mean time resolution of about 1.
The CO 2 concentration values derived for the past 65 kyr are very close to those obtained from other Antarctic ice cores using dry extraction methods, although the wet extraction method is generally thought to be inappropriate for the determination of the CO 2 concentration. The CO 2 concentration for the past kyr deduced from the Dome Fuji core varies between and ppmv, showing clear glacial-interglacial variations similar to the result of the Vostok ice core.
However, for some periods, the concentration values of the Dome Fuji core are higher by up to 20 ppmv than those of the Vostok core. Thermodynamic analysis on the CO 2 conversion processes of methane dry reforming for hydrogen production and CO 2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether. Based on the principle of Gibbs free energy minimization, the thermodynamic analysis on the CO 2 conversion processes of dry reforming of methane for H2 and CO 2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether was carried out.
The composition of the reaction system was determined on the basis of reaction mechanism. The effects of reaction temperature, pressure and raw material composition on the equilibrium conversion and the selectivity of products were analyzed. The calculated results are compared with the relevant studies, indicating that industrial catalytic technology needs further improvement.
Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO 2 capture. This article evaluates the energy conversion performance of SNG production from oxygen blown circulating fluidized bed CFB black liquor gasification process with direct causticization by investigating system integration with a reference pulp mill producing air dried tonnes ADt of pulp per day.
The direct causticization process eliminates use of energy intensive lime kiln that is a main component required in the conventional black liquor recovery cycle with the recovery boiler. Based on reference pulp mill capacity, the results indicate a large potential of SNG production about MW from black liquor but at a cost of additional biomass import About ktonnes per year of CO 2 abatement i. Moreover, the SNG production offers a significant fuel replacement in transport sector especially in countries with large pulp and paper industry e.
Experimental investigation of insolation-driven dust ejection from Mars' CO 2 ice caps. Mars' polar caps are - depending on hemisphere and season - partially or totally covered with CO 2 ice. Icy surfaces such as the polar caps of Mars behave differently from surfaces covered with rock and soil when they are irradiated by solar light. The latter absorb and reflect incoming solar radiation within a thin layer beneath the surface. In contrast, ices are partially transparent in the visible spectral range and opaque in the infrared.
Due to this fact, the solar radiation can penetrate to a certain depth and raise the temperature of the ice or dust below the surface. This may play an important role in the energy balance of icy surfaces in the solar system, as already noted in previous investigations. We investigated the temperature profiles inside CO 2 ice samples including a dust layer under Martian conditions.
We have been able to trigger dust eruptions, but also demonstrated that these require a very narrow range of temperature and ambient pressure. We discuss possible implications for the understanding of phenomena such as arachneiform patterns or fan shaped deposits as observed in Mars' southern polar region.
Air-sea flux of CO 2 in arctic coastal waters influenced by glacial melt water and sea ice. Annual air—sea exchange of CO 2 inYoung Sound,NEGreenlandwas estimated using p CO 2 surface-water measurements during summer — and during an ice -covered winter All surface p CO 2 values were below atmospheric levels indicating an uptake of atmospheric CO 2.
During sea ice formation During sea ice melt, dissolution of CaCO3 combined with primary production and strong stratification of the water column acted to lower surface-water p CO 2 levels in the fjord. Also, a large input of glacial melt water containing geochemically reactive However, the measurements are both analytically challenging and time-consuming; thus only data exist from a limited number of sampling sites and time periods.
Additional analytical resources with high analytical precision and throughput are thus desirable to extend the existing datasets. Moreover, consistent measurements derived by independent laboratories and a variety of analytical systems help to further increase confidence in the global CO 2 palaeo-reconstructions.
The small sample size allows for high resolution and replicate sampling schemes. In our method, CO 2 is cryogenically and chromatographically separated from the bulk air and its isotopic composition subsequently determined by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry IRMS. In combination with thermal conductivity measurement of the bulk air, the CO 2 mixing ratio is calculated. Replicate analysis of these samples resulted in a pooled standard deviation of 2. These numbers are good, though they are rather conservative estimates of the overall analytical precision achieved for single ice sample measurements.
Facilitated by the small sample requirement. Part 2; Hemispheric Dependencies. This issue is examined in a series of 10 control-run simulations with different sea ice and corresponding doubled CO 2 simulations. Results show that with increased control-run sea ice coverage in the Southern Hemisphere, temperature sensitivity with climate change is enhanced, while there is little effect on temperature sensitivity of reasonable variations in control-run sea ice thickness.
In the Northern Hemisphere the situation is reversed: sea ice thickness is the key parameter, while reasonable variations in control-run sea ice coverage are of less importance. In both cases, the quantity of sea ice that can be removed in the warmer climate is the determining factor. Overall, the Southern Hemisphere sea ice coverage change had a larger impact on global temperature, because Northern Hemisphere sea ice was sufficiently thick to limit its response to doubled CO 2 , and sea ice changes generally occurred at higher latitudes, reducing the sea ice -albedo feedback.
In both these experiments and earlier ones in which sea ice was not allowed to change, the model displayed a sensitivity of In our present work, a microkinetic model based on density functional theory DFT calculations is applied to explore the reaction mechanism for methane dry reforming on Pt catalysts.
The adsorption energies of the reactants, intermediates and products, and the activation barriers for the elementary reactions involved in the DRM process are calculated over the Pt 1 1 1 surface. Path I requires process to overcome the activation barrier of 1.
In addition, the kinetic results also indicate this process is not easy to. Measurements from Antarctic ice cores allow us to reconstruct atmospheric concentrations of climatically important gases including CO 2 over the past kyr.
Such measurements show that [ CO 2 ] has varied in parallel with Antarctic temperatures on glacial-interglacial timescales. In comparison, the more recent record depicts three more abrupt excursions to lighter values around 63 - 59, 46, and 17 kyrBP, in each case followed by a slower return 0.
These coincide with Heinrich events 6, 5, and 1, respectively. No direct correlation is observed between the concentration and carbon isotope of CO 2 over the last kyr. References: Schmitt, J. Science , Schneider. The large undersaturation of CO 2 in this region was the result of massive primary production after the sea- ice retreat in June and July. If these low p CO 2 sea layers surface by wind mixing, they will act as additional CO 2 sinks; however, this is unlikely because intensification of stratification by sea- ice melt inhibits mixing across the halocline.
Between ice and gas: CO 2 on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. CO 2 exists in the surfaces of the icy Galilean and Saturnian satellites , yet despite its discovery over a decade ago on Ganymede, and five years ago on the Saturnian satellites, its nature is still debated . On the Galilean satellites Callisto and Ganymede, the CO 2 that is detected is bound to, or trapped within, the non- ice materials that prevent it from sublimating or otherwise escaping from the surface.
On Europa, it resides within both the ice and nonice materials [8,9]. While greater abundances of CO 2 may exist in the interiors of these moons, or small amounts may be continually created through particle bombardment of the surface, the observed CO 2 is only a trace material, with a few hundred molecules responsible for the deepest absorption features and an estimated molar abundance of 0.
Yet its presence may provide essential clues to processes that shape the surfaces of the moon  and potentially key to understanding the composition of potential oceans in the subsurfaces. Previous measurements, using transmission spectroscopy, demonstrated both a compositional and a temperature dependence on the spectral signature of adsorbed CO 2 . Bidirectional spectroscopy enables detection of lower concentrations of adsorbate on fine-grained materials such as clays due to their large surface area to volume ratios and thus large surface areas that may be covered by adsorbate .
All measurements demonstrate that CO 2 adsorbs onto montmorillonite clays, possibly due to its quadrupole moment. Fundamentals and applications of dry CO 2 cryogenic aerosol for photomask cleaning. There is a dire need for the removal of all printable defects on lithography masks. As the technology node advances, smaller particles need to be efficiently removed from smaller features without any damage or adders. Ultra-pure liquid CO 2 when dispensed through an optimally designed nozzle results in CO 2 clusters that impart the required momentum for defect removal.
Historically nanomachining debris removal has been established with this technique. Several improvements have been incorporated for cleaning of advanced node masks, which has enabled Full Mask Final Clean, a new capability that has been successfully demonstrated.
The properties of the CO 2 clusters can be captured utilizing the Phase Doppler Anemometry PDA and effect of varying process and design parameters can be verified. This capability has been experimentally proven for high aspect ratio SRAFs e. No printed defects larger than 50nm is observed after the CO 2 cleaning. Stability of the cleaning and handling mechanisms has been demonstrated over the last 4.
We have developed an improved thermal, epithermal, and fast neutron counting-rate time series data of the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer MONS , optimized to greatly reduce both statistical and systematic uncertainties. This new data set was applied to study temporal and spatial distributions of the growth, decay, and maximum amount of precipitated CO 2 ice during Martian years MY 26, 27, 28, and For this study, we concentrate on the epithermal counting rate detected using the down-looking prism P1 of MONS, and a combination of the epithermal and thermal counting rate detected by the forward-looking sensor P2 of MONS.
Although the energy range of neutrons detected by P2 covers both the thermal and epithermal range, it is heavily weighted to the thermal range. The most-likely explanation of this drop is that abundances of the non-condensable gases N2 and Ar, are unusually enhanced during MY Movies were also made of maps of the growth and decay of P2 counting rates summed over the first three years of these data.
Careful inspection shows that both the growth and decay in the north were cylindrically symmetric, centered near the geographic north pole. In contrast, both the growth and decay of CO 2 buildup in the south were skewed off the geographic pole to the center of the CO 2 residual cap, and contained a small, but definitely distinct ring-like annular enhancement centered at a latitude of about This arc runs parallel to, and overlays, the very steep drop in altitude from. CO 2 and CH4 in sea ice from a subarctic fjord under influence of riverine input.
The bulk ice [CH4] ranged from 1. This is markedly higher Our study adds to the few existing studies of CH4 and CO 2 in sea ice and concludes that sub-arctic sea can be a sink for atmospheric CO 2 , while being a net source of CH4. Processes related to the freezing and melting of sea ice represents large unknowns It is therefore imperative to assess the consequences of these unknowns through further field campaigns and targeted research under other sea ice conditions at both hemispheres Subglacial carbon processes are of increasing interest as warming induces ice melting and increases fluxes of glacial meltwater into proglacial rivers and the coastal ocean.
Meltwater may serve as an atmospheric source or sink of carbon dioxide CO 2 or methane CH4 , depending on the magnitudes of subglacial organic carbon OC remineralization, which produces CO 2 and CH4, and mineral weathering reactions, which consume CO 2 but not CH4. We report wide variability in dissolved CO 2 and CH4 concentrations at the beginning of the melt season May-June between three sites draining land-terminating glaciers of the Greenland Ice Sheet.
Two sites, located along the Watson River in western Greenland, drain the Isunnguata and Russell Glaciers and contained and ppm CO 2 , respectively. In-situ CO 2 flux measurements indicated that the Isunnguata was a source of atmospheric CO 2 , while the Russell was a sink. Both sites had elevated CH4 concentrations, at and 25 ppm CH4, respectively, suggesting active anaerobic OC remineralization beneath the ice sheet.
Dissolved CO 2 and CH4 reached atmospheric equilibrium within 2. The third site, draining the Kiagtut Sermiat in southern Greenland, had about half atmospheric CO 2 concentrations ppm , but approximately atmospheric CH4 concentrations 2. Downstream CO 2 flux measurements indicated ingassing of CO 2 over the entire km length of the proglacial river.
CO 2 undersaturation may be due to more readily weathered lithologies underlying the Kiagtut Sermiat compared to Watson River sites, but low CH4 concentrations also suggest limited contributions of CO 2 and CH4 from OC remineralization. These results suggest that carbon processing beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet may be more variable than previously recognized.
Surface decontamination using dry ice snow. An adjustable nozzle for controlling the size of dry ice snow was developed. Using the nozzle, a surface decontamination device was made. The removal mechanisms of surface contaminants are mechanical impact, partial dissolving and evaporation process, and viscous flow. A heat supply system is added for the prevention of surface ice layer formation. The cleaning power is slightly dependent on the size of snow.
Small snows are the better in viscous flow cleaning, while large snows are slightly better in dissolving and sublimation process. Human oils like fingerprints on glass were easy to remove. Decontamination ability was tested using a contaminated pump-housing surface. This device is effective in surface-decontamination of any electrical devices like detector, controllers which cannot be cleaned in aqueous solution. Caldera unrest driven by CO 2 -induced drying of the deep hydrothermal system.
Interpreting volcanic unrest is a highly challenging and non-unique problem at calderas, since large hydrothermal systems may either hide or amplify the dynamics of buried magma s. Here we use the exceptional ground displacement and geochemical datasets from the actively degassing Campi Flegrei caldera Southern Italy to show that ambiguities disappear when the thermal evolution of the deep hydrothermal system is accurately tracked. This resulted in the drying of the base of the hot hydrothermal system, no more buffered along the liquid-vapour equilibrium, and excludes any shallow arrival of new magma, whose abundant steam degassing due to decompression would have restored liquid-vapour equilibrium.
The consequent CO 2 -infiltration and progressive heating of the surrounding deforming rock volume cause the build-up of pore pressure in aquifers, and generate the striking temporal symmetry that characterizes the ongoing uplift and the post subsidence, both originated by the same but reversed deformation mechanism. Supercritical CO 2 extraction of raw propolis and its dry ethanolic extract. Full Text Available Three types of propolis extract were prepared and analyzed with respect to their global extraction yields and with respect to the concentration of the following markers: 3,5-diprenylhydroxycinnamic acid; 3-prenylhydroxycinnamic acid; 4-hydroxycinnamic acid and 4-methoxy-3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone.
The extract EEP ethanolic extract of propolis was obtained by the conventional method from raw propolis using ethanol as solvent. The extracts SFE were obtained by supercritical solvent extraction from the raw propolis using supercritical carbon dioxide sc- CO 2 , with and without the addition of ethanol as a co-solvent.
EEP yields of The concentrations of the markers in the different extracts differed as a function of the operational parameters, indicating that the addition of co-solvent and the selectivity of sc- CO 2 could be manipulated so as to obtain extracts with the yields and concentrations of interest. The most direct method of investigating past variations of the atmospheric CO 2 concentration before , when continuous direct atmospheric CO 2 measurements started, is the analysis of air extracted from suitable ice cores.
The DML CO 2 record shows an increase from about to parts per million by volume ppmv between ad and ad and a fairly continuous decrease to a mean value of about ppmv around ad While the new South Pole measurements agree well with DML at the minimum at ad they are on average about 2 ppmv lower during the period ad Published measurements from the coastal high-accumulation site Law Dome are considered as very reliable because of the reproducibility of the measurements, high temporal resolution and an accurate time scale.
Other Antarctic ice cores could not, or only partly, reproduce the pre-industrial measurements from Law Dome. However we should be able to rule out co-variations caused by the same artefact. Two possible effects are discussed, first production of CO 2 by chemical reactions and second diffusion of dissolved air through the ice matrix into the bubbles.
While the first effect cannot be totally excluded, comparison of the Law Dome and DML record shows that dissolved air diffusing to bubbles cannot be responsible for the pre-industrial variation. Therefore, the new record is not a proof of the Law Dome results but the first very strong support from an ice core of the Antarctic plateau. Accurately modelling the intensification of greenhouse gas effects in the polar regions "polar amplification" necessitates a thorough understanding of the geochemical balance between atmospheric, sea ice , and oceanic layers.
Sea ice is highly permeable to CO 2 and therefore represents a major sink of oceanic CO 2 in winter and of atmospheric CO 2 in summer, sinks that are typically either poorly constrained in or fully absent from global climate models. This method involves melting of vacuum-sealed ice cores to evacuate trapped gases to the headspace and sampling the headspace gas with a blunt needle sheathed by a beveled puncturing needle.
A gravity catchment tube prevents input of dangerous levels of liquid water to the Picarro cavity. Subsequent ultrasonic degassing allows for dissolved gas measurement. We are in the process of using this method to sample gases trapped and dissolved in Arctic autumn sea ice cores and atmospheric samples collected during the Polarstern Expedition and during a May field campaign north of Barrow, Alaska. We additionally employ this method, together with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS , to analyze the transfer of potential biogeochemical signatures of underlying hydrothermal plumes to sea ice.
This has particular relevance to Europa and Enceladus, where hypothetical hydrothermal plumes may deliver seafloor chemicals to the overlying ice shell. Hence, we are presently investigating the entrainment of methane and other hydrothermal material in sea ice cores collected along the Gakkel Ridge that may serve as biosignatures of methanogenic organisms in seafloor.
Estimating surface CO 2 fluxes from space-borne CO 2 dry air mole fraction observations using an ensemble Kalman Filter. The day duty cycle of OCO alternates every 16 days between nadir and glint measurements of backscattered solar radiation at short-wave infrared wavelengths. The EnKF uses an ensemble of states to represent the error covariances to estimate 8-day CO 2 surface fluxes over geographical regions.
The observation operator that relates surface CO 2 fluxes to atmospheric distributions of XCO2 includes: a the GEOS-Chem transport model that relates surface fluxes to global 3-D distributions of CO 2 concentrations, which are sampled at the time and location of OCO measurements that are cloud-free and have aerosol optical depths 2 profiles to XCO2, accounting for differences between nadir and glint measurements, and the associated scene-dependent observation errors.
Glint measurements are generally better at constraining ocean CO 2 flux estimates. Nadir XCO2 measurements over the terrestrial tropics are sparse throughout the year because of either clouds or smoke. Glint measurements provide the most effective constraint for estimating tropical terrestrial CO 2 fluxes by accurately sampling fresh continental outflow over neighbouring oceans. We also present results from sensitivity experiments that investigate how flux estimates change with 1 bias and unbiased errors, 2 alternative duty cycles, 3 measurement density and correlations, 4 the spatial resolution of estimated flux estimates, and 5 reducing the length of the lag window and the.
Dry reforming of methane with CO 2 on an electron-activated iron catalytic bed. A preliminary experimental investigation of dry reforming of methane with carbon dioxide, that has been performed on an iron bed activated with an electric current is reported. The reaction, involving an excess of pure methane and carbon dioxide, was performed with and without addition of water vapour, provided by hot water saturation of the gaseous feed.
According to syngas compositions, the electron flow has a dramatic effect on the conversion of both methane and carbon dioxide. It was shown also that hot water saturation of the CO 2 and CH 4 mixture allowed very good conversion, giving a syngas with a composition very close to what was expected from equilibrium calculations. All rights reserved. Sensitivity to ocean acidification parallels natural p CO 2 gradients experienced by Arctic copepods under winter sea ice.
The Arctic Ocean already experiences areas of low pH and high CO 2 , and it is expected to be most rapidly affected by future ocean acidification OA. Copepods comprise the dominant Arctic zooplankton; hence, their responses to OA have important implications for Arctic ecosystems, yet there is little data on their current under- ice winter ecology on which to base future monitoring or make predictions about climate-induced change.
Here, we report results from Arctic under- ice investigations of copepod natural distributions associated with late-winter carbonate chemistry environmental data and their response to manipulated p CO 2 conditions OA exposures. Our data reveal that species and life stage sensitivities to manipulated OA conditions were correlated with their vertical migration behavior and with their natural exposures to different p CO 2 ranges.
Vertically migrating adult Calanus spp. Oithona similis, which remained in the surface waters and experienced a p CO 2 range of CO 2 experiments. These results support the relatively untested hypothesis that the natural range of p CO 2 experienced by an organism determines its sensitivity to future OA and highlight that the globally important copepod species, Oithona spp.
Ice rink installations working with natural refrigerants; Kunst-ijsbanen met NH3 en CO 2 , natuurlijker kan het niet. In a growing number of countries it is not allowed anymore to use big amounts of ammonia in areas occupied by many people. So new skating halls with direct ammonia systems are not built anymore although those systems are the best solution, concerning ice quality and energy consumption.
During the last years CO 2 has proven itself not only as an excellent refrigerant but also as a very usable secondary refrigerant in stead of brines, etc. Efficiency of radial transport of ices in protoplanetary disks probed with infrared observations: the case of CO 2. Radial transport of icy solid material from the cold outer disk to the warm inner disk is thought to be important for planet formation. However, the efficiency at which this happens is currently unconstrained.
Efficient radial transport of icy dust grains could significantly alter the composition of the gas in the inner disk, enhancing the gas-phase abundances of the major ice constituents such as H2O and CO 2. Our aim is to model the gaseous CO 2 abundance in the inner disk and use this to probe the efficiency of icy dust transport in a viscous disk. From the model predictions, infrared CO 2 spectra are simulated and features that could be tracers of icy CO 2 , and thus dust, radial transport efficiency are investigated.
Methods: We have developed a 1D viscous disk model that includes gas accretion and gas diffusion as well as a description for grain growth and grain transport. Results: CO 2 ice sublimating at the iceline increases the gaseous CO 2 abundance to levels equal to the CO 2 ice abundance of , which is three orders of magnitude more than the gaseous CO 2 abundances of observed by Spitzer.
Grain growth and radial drift increase the rate at which CO 2 is transported over the iceline and thus the gaseous CO 2 abundance, further exacerbating the problem. In the case without radial drift, a CO 2 destruction rate of at least s-1 or a destruction timescale of at most yr is needed to reconcile model prediction with observations.
This rate is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the fastest destruction rate included in chemical databases. A range of potential physical mechanisms to explain the low observed CO 2 abundances are discussed. Conclusions: We conclude that transport processes in disks can have.
Noble metal-based catalysts can effectively assist DRM reaction, however they are not economically viable. Alternatively, non-noble based catalysts have been studied so far, and supported Ni catalysts have been considered as a promising candidate for DRM catalyst. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the appropriate choice of metal-oxide supports can address this issue since the chemical and physical of metal-oxide supports can prevent coke formation and stabilize the small Ni nanoparticles under harsh conditions of DRM operation.
This mini-review covers the recent scientific findings on the development of supported Ni catalysts for DRM reaction, including the synthetic methods of supported Ni nanoparticles with high sintering resistance. Dynamic ikaite production and dissolution in sea ice - control by temperature, salinity and p CO 2 conditions. It is only found in a metastable state, and decomposes rapidly once removed from near-freezing water.
Recently, ikaite crystals have been found in sea ice and it has been suggested that their precipitation may play an important role in air-sea CO 2 exchange in ice -covered seas. Little is known, however, of the spatial and temporal dynamics of ikaite in sea ice. Here we present evidence for highly dynamic ikaite precipitation and dissolution in sea ice grown at an out-door pool of the Sea- ice Environmental Research Facility SERF.
Manual removal of the snow cover allowed the sea ice to cool and brine salinities to increase, resulting in rapid ikaite precipitation. The modeled FREZCHEM ikaite concentrations were in the same order of magnitude as observations and suggest that ikaite concentration in sea ice increase with decreasing temperatures. Thus, varying snow conditions may play a key role in ikaite precipitation and dissolution in sea ice.
This will have implications for CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere and ocean. Additions and corrections to the absorption coefficients of CO 2 ice : Applications to the Martian south polar cap. In comparing these calculated spectra to spectra of frosts observed in the laboratory and on the surface of Mars, problems in the optical constants presented by Warren became apparent. Absorption coefficients for CO 2 ice have been derived using laboratory reflectance measurements and the Hapke model for calculating diffuse reflectance.
This provides approximate values in regions where no data were previously available and indicates where corrections to the compilation by Warren are required. Using these coefficients to calculate the reflectance of CO 2 ice at varying grain sizes indicates that a typical Mariner polar cap spectrum is dominated by absorptions due to CO 2 frost or ice at grain sizes that are quite large, probably of the order of millimeters to centimeters.
There are indications of contamination of water frost or dust, but confirmation will require more precise absorption coefficients for solid CO 2 than can be obtained from the method used here. Effect of elevated [ CO 2 ] and nutrient management on wet and dry season rice production in subtropical India. The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of elevated [ CO 2 ] with varying nutrient management on rice—rice production system.
The higher [ CO 2 ] level in the OTC increased aboveground biomass but marginally decreased filled grains per panicle and grain yield of rice, compared to the ambient environment. However, crop root biomass was increased significantly under elevated [ CO 2 ]. With respect to nutrient management, increasing the dose of CF increased grain yield significantly in both seasons. At the recommended dose of nutrients, integrated nutrient management was comparable to CF in the wet season, but significantly inferior in the dry season, in its effect on growth and yield of rice.
It was concluded that increased doses of nutrients via integration of chemical and organic sources in the wet season and chemical sources alone in the dry season will minimize the adverse effect of future climate on rice production in subtropical India. IR spectra were taken of each sample before sublimation to confirm the presence of volatiles.
The samples were then heated at rates from 0. The volatiles escaped from the ice mixtures in temperature ranges similar to those found in previous work 1, 2, 3 , namely K, K, K. H2O is released from K to K. However, the temperature range of escape is strongly dependent on deposition temperature and heating rate. If the deposition temperature is below the point where the solid volatile rapidly sublimates in the ambient environment of our experiment, then the first range of volatile escape is centered around it's sublimation point, and there is little of the volatile remaining from K.
The location of the third escape range shifts to lower temperatures with slower sublimation rate. It was determined that 0. In our data, the infrared spectrum of CO trapped in water ice shows a splitting of the cm-1 solid CO line into two bands at cm-1 and cm These shifts are similar to those seen by Sandford, et al.
Herman, D. Laufer, and M. Rappaport, , Icarus, 63, Dror, E. Kochavi, and D. The papers are organized in topical sections on natural language processing; general topics of data analysis; analysis of images and video; optimization problems on graphs and network structures; analysis of dynamic behavior through event data; social network analysis.
|Sport spread betting calculator lucky||Icy surfaces such as the polar caps of Mars behave differently from surfaces covered with rock and soil when they are irradiated by solar light. When the surface roughness exceeds a critical point small pits can begin to develop. For decades sea ice was assumed to be an impermeable and inert barrier for air - sea exchange of CO 2 so that global climate models do not include CO 2 exchange between the oceans and the atmosphere in the polar regions. Pingback: situs judi slot online bet kecil. Pingback: torrentmr. Pingback: customessaywriterbyz.|
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In her Instagram story, she shared a clip of herself lying down as tattoo artist Steve Wiebe worked on the piece. The tattoo reads: "2 Lauren you my heart love you more! Just a few weeks after Nip passed away, she got a forearm piece with the rapper's face and the phrase. The international roster led by Alex McMeekin entered the match as the underdogs—NiP have been a solid top team in the world throughout the year. Aptly named because of its tong-like pinching feature, the Nip steamer takes inspiration from a classic hair-straightener to streamline the clothes-ironing process.
The advantage? Added efficiency. Instead of de-wrinkling one side at a time, the two-pane iron straightens both sides of a shirt simultaneously. I would also like to highlight two smaller, but equally thoughtful elements. First, the shape: the Nip steamer has a curved face, while most irons have a pointed tip.
Intentional or not, I think the curved. Ninjas in Pyjamas has dropped its roster and will not compete in Defense of the Ancients 2 competitions for the foreseeable future. It is administered. The BSE Infra index surged 2 percent on the back of the incentives. Shares of infrastructure companies continued trading higher on Tuesday after Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced incentives to boost the sector in Budget On the tenth anniversary of its release, the family and estate of the late Nipsey Hussle have shared a the visual album The Marathon Live.
The people, the places, the stories, and more. The visual project premiered on YouTube giving is a look at the behind-the-scenes making of his mixtape. The hour-long video also shows unreleased content, interviews and more. Released through Puma, the project is exactly what we need to remember Nip! The Marathon Clothing and Okidoki will honor the legacy of Nipsey Hussle and celebrate the year anniversary of The Marathon mixtape, a key turning.
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