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CLARIN is a European research network working in the field of archiving and processing of language-related resources in the humanities and social sciences. Clark P. Johnson born July 21, is a Minnesota politician and member of the Minnesota House of Representatives. Clark University is an American private research university located in Worcester, Massachusetts.

Claude Fischler born is a French social scientist sociology, anthropology. Claudine Gay is Wilbur A. Climate change denial, or global warming denial, is part of the global warming controversy. Climate resilience can be generally defined as the capacity for a socio-ecological system to: 1 absorb stresses and maintain function in the face of external stresses imposed upon it by climate change and 2 adapt, reorganize, and evolve into more desirable configurations that improve the sustainability of the system, leaving it better prepared for future climate change impacts.

Co-coaching is a structured practice of coaching that involves peers alike with the ultimate goal to gain peer knowledge in learning how to coach or bettering their coaching techniques. Coastal Christian School is a private, non-denominational Christian school from Kindergarten through 12th grade. In the social sciences, coding is an analytical process in which data, in both quantitative form such as questionnaires results or qualitative form such as interview transcripts are categorized to facilitate analysis.

Cognitive bias mitigation is the prevention and reduction of the negative effects of cognitive biases — unconscious, automatic influences on human judgment and decision making that reliably produce reasoning errors. The term cohort effect is used in social science to describe variations in the characteristics of an area of study such as the incidence of a characteristic or the age at onset over time among individuals who are defined by some shared temporal experience or common life experience, such as year of birth, or year of exposure to radiation.

A cohort study is a particular form of longitudinal study that sample a cohort a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically those who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation , performing a cross-section at intervals through time. El Colegio de la Frontera Norte commonly known as El Colef, English: The College of the Northern Border is a prestigious Mexican institute of higher education, specializing in teaching and research in the social sciences with focus on border issues.

Before deleting any text please note that some of the text contained within this article has been authorised for use on a CC-BY-SA licence. Sir Colin Renshaw Lucas, born 25 August is a historian and university administrator. In mathematics and social science, a collaboration graph is a graph modeling some social network where the vertices represent participants of that network usually individual people and where two distinct participants are joined by an edge whenever there is a collaborative relationship between them of a particular kind.

A College of Arts and Sciences or School of Arts and Sciences is most commonly a unit within a university which focuses on instruction of the liberal arts and pure sciences, especially in North America and the Philippines, although they frequently include programs and faculty in fine arts, social sciences, and other disciplines. The College of Arts and Sciences of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, offers a number of research and educational programs in the arts, humanities, social sciences, physical and biological sciences, and mathematics.

College of Liberal Arts is the humanities and social sciences college at the University of Nevada. Columbia is a census-designated place in Howard County, Maryland, United States, and is one of the principal cities of the Baltimore metropolitan area. The Columbian College is one of the most prestigious schools of political sciences, history, English, and economics in the United States. The Combating Terrorism Center is an academic institution at the United States Military Academy USMA in West Point, New York that provides education, research and policy analysis in the specialty areas of terrorism, counterterrorism, homeland security and internal conflict.

Common factors theory, a theory guiding some research in clinical psychology and counseling psychology, proposes that different approaches and evidence-based practices in psychotherapy and counseling share common factors that account for much of the effectiveness of a psychological treatment. Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by "common to" nearly all people.

In applied statistics, e. Communicology is the scholarly and academic study of how we create and use messages to affect our social environment. In political and social sciences, communism from Latin communis, "common, universal" is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

Communitas is a Latin noun commonly referring either to an unstructured community in which people are equal, or to the very spirit of community. A community is a small or large social unit a group of living things that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.

Community practice also known as macro practice is a branch of social work in the United States of America that focuses on larger social systems and social change, and is tied to the historical roots of United States social work. Comparative research is a research methodology in the social sciences that aims to make comparisons across different countries or cultures.

This is a conversion chart showing how the Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress Classification systems organize resources by concept, in part for the purpose of assigning call numbers. Compendium is a computer program and social science tool that facilitates the mapping and management of ideas and arguments. Complete spatial randomness CSR describes a point process whereby point events occur within a given study area in a completely random fashion.

Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions. Compliance gaining is a term used in the social sciences that encompasses the intentional act of altering another's behavior. Computational social science refers to the academic sub-disciplines concerned with computational approaches to the social sciences. Computational sociology is a branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena.

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system. Computer-assisted reporting describes the use of computers to gather and analyze the data necessary to write news stories.

Cashman in , at a workshop attended by individuals interested in using technology to support people in their work. Conant Hall is one of several graduate student residence halls at Harvard University. Concordia University commonly referred to as Concordia is a public comprehensive university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada on unceded Indigenous lands.

Conflict continuum is a model or concept used by various social science researchers in modelling conflict, usually going from low "irritations" to high "explosiveness" intensity. Confluenze - Rivista di studi iberomericani is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal established in Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.

American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.

Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge is a book by biologist E. Wilson, in which the author discusses methods that have been used to unite the sciences and might in the future unite them with the humanities. The Constitution of the Italian Republic Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December , with votes in favour and 62 against.

Construct validity is "the degree to which a test measures what it claims, or purports, to be measuring. Contentment is a mental or emotional state of satisfaction maybe drawn from being at ease in one's situation, body and mind. The German education system or continental education system is a higher education model, often contrasted with the Anglo-Saxon education system and the Scandinavian education system.

Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt changes or discontinuities. Cooperation sometimes written as co-operation is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for common, mutual, or some underlying benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.

In social science generally and linguistics specifically, the cooperative principle describes how effective communication in conversation is achieved in common social situations, that is, how listeners and speakers must act cooperatively and mutually accept one another to be understood in a particular way.

In the social sciences, coordinated management of meaning CMM provides understanding of how individuals create, coordinate and manage meanings in their process of communication. As used by copyright theorists, the term copynorm or more frequently copynorms is used to refer to a normalized social standard regarding the ethical issue of duplicating copyrighted material.

The Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy JLPP is a law review published by students at Cornell Law School, First published in July , JLPP publishes articles, commentaries, book reviews, and student notes that explore the intersections of law, government, public policy, and the social sciences, with a focus on current domestic issues and their implications.

Corporate capitalism is a term used in social science and economics to describe a capitalist marketplace characterized by the dominance of hierarchical, bureaucratic corporations. In statistics, many statistical tests calculate correlations between variables and when two variables are found to be correlated, it is tempting to assume that this shows that one variable causes the other.

Cosumnes River College is a two-year community college located on the southern edge of Sacramento in Sacramento County, California. A couple interview or joint couple interview, or more broadly conjoint interview, joint interview or dyadic interview is a method of qualitative research used in the social sciences, where two spouses are interviewed together. Coursera is an online learning platform founded by Stanford professors Andrew Ng and Daphne Koller that offers courses, specializations, and degrees.

Craig Bruce Reucassel born 1 January is an Australian television and radio comedian. Crime analysis is a law enforcement function that involves systematic analysis for identifying and analyzing patterns and trends in crime and disorder. Laboratoire CRISES or Centre de recherches interdisciplinaires en sciences humaines et sociales is a French research centre in humanities and social sciences, founded in Montpellier, France, in January Critical psychology is a perspective on psychology that draws extensively on critical theory.

Critical race theory CRT is a theoretical framework in the social sciences that uses critical theory to examine society and culture as they relate to categorizations of race, law, and power. Critical realism, a philosophical approach associated with Roy Bhaskar — , combines a general philosophy of science transcendental realism with a philosophy of social science critical naturalism to describe an interface between the natural and social worlds.

Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. Criticism of science addresses and refines problems within science in order to improve science as a whole and its role in society.

Cross-Cultural Research formerly Behavior Science Research is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Social Sciences. Cross-cultural studies, sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology and sister sciences sociology, psychology, economics, political science that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture. Cross-plot is synonym for scatter plots used primarily in the Earth Sciences and Social Sciences to describe a specialized chart that compares multiple measurements made at a single time or location along two or more axes.

In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities culture. A cultural artifact, or cultural artefact see American and British English spelling differences , is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.

A cultural critic is a critic of a given culture, usually as a whole and typically on a radical basis. Cultural framework is a term used in social science to explain traditions, value systems, myths and symbols that are common in a given society. In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm; the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.

Since the beginning of her career in the early s, American singer and songwriter Madonna has had a social-cultural impact on the world through her recordings, attitude, clothing and lifestyle. The cultural turn is a movement beginning in the early s among scholars in the humanities and social sciences to make culture the focus of contemporary debates; it also describes a shift in emphasis toward meaning and away from a positivist epistemology.

The culture of Paris,in France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups. The culture of Sussex refers to the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with Sussex and its people.

The culture of the People's Republic of China is a rich and varied blend of traditional Chinese culture with communist and other international modern and post-modern influences. Culturology or science of culture is a branch of social sciences concerned with the scientific understanding, description, analysis, and prediction of cultures as a whole. Customer relationship management CRM is an approach to manage a company's interaction with current and potential customers.

The Czech Academy of Sciences abbr. The Academy is the leading non-university public research institution in the Czech Republic. Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences SVU is a nonprofit, nonpolitical, cultural organization, dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge, the free dissemination of ideas, and the fostering of contacts among people.

Boys Senior Secondary School is a senior secondary high school located in Gopalapuram, a central part of Chennai, India. Daeduk College is a private technical college in the Yuseong-gu district of Daejeon, a major city of South Korea. Dafna Lemish is an Israeli media researcher in the fields of children, youth and leisure culture; as well as construction of gender identity in the media. Damond L.

Daniel E. Daniel Nettle born is a British behavioural researcher, biologist and social scientist. Daniel Yankelovich December 29, — September 22, was a public opinion analyst and social scientist. Darko Bratina 30 March — 23 September was an Italian sociologist, film theorist and politician of Slovene ethnicity.

Darmanto Jatman 16 August — 13 January Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic fashion, which then enables one to answer relevant questions and evaluate outcomes. Data science is an interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from data in various forms, both structured and unstructured, similar to data mining.

David Verge Fleischer is an American born Brazilian social scientist and professor. David Glenn Hays November 17, — July 26, was a linguist, computer scientist and social scientist best known for his early work in machine translation and computational linguistics. David Paul Berenberg March 17, — March 7, was an American socialist teacher, editor, and writer.

In law and government, de facto or;, "in fact" describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws. A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces for example, by early entrance to the market. Jeremiah Joseph Duggan 10 November — 27 March was a British student in Paris who died during a visit to Wiesbaden, Germany, after being struck by several cars on a dual carriageway.

Debi Prasanna Pattanayak born 14 March is an Indian professor, linguist, social scientist and author. The Decade of the Mind Project is an international initiative to advance scientific understanding of how the mind and complex behaviors are related to the activity of human brains. Dedoose is a web application for mixed methods research developed by academics from UCLA, with support from the William T. Grant Foundation, and is the successor to EthnoNotes. Demographic gravitation is a concept of "social physics", introduced by Princeton University astrophysicist John Quincy Stewart in Descriptive knowledge, also declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions.

Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns. Design Studies is an academic discipline that pursues a critical understanding of design and its effects through analytical and practical modes of inquiry.

Desmond Green born October 11, is an American mixed martial artist who competes in the featherweight division for Ultimate Fighting Championship. Development Southern Africa, the journal of the Development Bank of Southern Africa, publishes articles that reflect innovative thinking on key development challenges and policy issues facing South Africa and other southern African countries. Developmentalism is an economic theory which states that the best way for less developed economies to develop is through fostering a strong and varied internal market and imposing high tariffs on imported goods.

The dialogical self is a psychological concept which describes the mind's ability to imagine the different positions of participants in an internal dialogue, in close connection with external dialogue. Dieter Senghaas born August 27, , in Geislingen an der Steige is a German social scientist and peace researcher. A dietitian or dietician is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet. Digital humanities DH is an area of scholarly activity at the intersection of computing or digital technologies and the disciplines of the humanities.

Discourse from Latin discursus, "running to and from" denotes written and spoken communications. Discourse analysis DA , or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event. The Discourse Unit is an international research group that currently has its main base at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom.

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury. In social science, disenchantment Entzauberung is the cultural rationalization and devaluation of mysticism apparent in modern society. The disengagement theory of aging states that "aging is an inevitable, mutual withdrawal or disengagement, resulting in decreased interaction between the aging person and others in the social system he belongs to".

The term Disneyfication also Disneyization describes the transformation of a society to resemble the theme parks of The Walt Disney Company. Dispositional affect, similar to mood, is a personality trait or overall tendency to respond to situations in stable, predictable ways. The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize. The various academic faculties, departments, and institutes of the University of Oxford are organised into four divisions, each with its own Head and elected board.

The Doctor of Social Science degree is a higher qualification offered by select universities, which serves as a doctoral level qualification specifically relating to academic work in the field of social sciences. A doctorate from Latin docere, "to teach" or doctor's degree from Latin doctor, "teacher" or doctoral degree from the ancient formalism licentia docendi is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

Doomsday cult is an expression used to describe groups who believe in apocalypticism and millenarianism, and can refer both to groups that predict disaster, and to those that attempt to bring it about. Dorothea Jacqueline Dorien DeTombe born is a Dutch sociologist and former academic at the Utrecht University and the Delft University of Technology, known for her contributions in the field of methodology for societal complexity. Double burden is a term used to describe the workload of people who work to earn money, but who are also responsible for significant amounts of unpaid domestic labor.

The double hermeneutic is the theory, expounded by sociologist Anthony Giddens, that everyday "lay" concepts and those from the social sciences have a two-way relationship. Dr Manmohan Singh Scholarships are awards available to Indian students for doctoral study at St John's College at the University of Cambridge and for undergraduate studies at the university.

Druga gimnazija Sarajevo is a Sarajevo gymnasium school in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering multidisciplinary and multicultural social science research and criticism about race.

Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University. Duquesne University Press, founded in , is a publisher that is part of Duquesne University, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Dynamical systems theory is an area of mathematics used to describe the behavior of the complex dynamical systems, usually by employing differential equations or difference equations. E-Science or eScience is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid.

E-social science is a more recent development in conjunction with the wider developments in e-science. Edward Hallett "Ted" Carr 28 June — 3 November was an English historian, diplomat, journalist and international relations theorist, and an opponent of empiricism within historiography. Eamon Michael Kelly - was the president of Tulane University from to Earth system governance is a recently developed paradigm that builds on earlier notions of environmental policy and nature conservation, but puts these into the broader context of human-induced transformations of the entire earth system.

Earth system science ESS is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. East Asian studies is a distinct multidisciplinary field of scholarly enquiry and education that promotes a broad humanistic understanding of East Asia past and present. Eco-socialism, green socialism or socialist ecology is an ideology merging aspects of socialism with that of green politics, ecology and alter-globalization or anti-globalization.

The Economic and Political Weekly is a weekly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all social sciences, and is published by the Sameeksha Trust. In finance, mainly for financial services firms, economic capital is the amount of risk capital, assessed on a realistic basis, which a firm requires to cover the risks that it is running or collecting as a going concern, such as market risk, credit risk, legal risk, and operational risk.

The social science of economics makes extensive use of graphs to better illustrate the economic principles and trends it is attempting to explain. Economic methodology is the study of methods, especially the scientific method, in relation to economics, including principles underlying economic reasoning. Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

Diamond, Jr. Econophysics is an interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics, usually those including uncertainty or stochastic processes and nonlinear dynamics.

The term edge of chaos is used to denote a transition space between order and disorder that is hypothesized to exist within a wide variety of systems. Edinburgh College is a further and higher education institution with campuses in Edinburgh and Midlothian, Scotland.

Editorial URSS is a Russian scientific literature publishing house textbooks, monographs, journals, proceedings of Russian institutes and universities, etc. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva born February 6, in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania is an American political sociologist and professor of sociology at Duke University.

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Education in state institutions is free at the initial, primary, secondary and tertiary levels and in the undergraduate university level not for graduate programs. Education in China is a state-run system of public education run by the Ministry of Education.

Education in Moldova is currently the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Research. Mongolia's education system has undergone major changes in the 20th century. The educational system in Taiwan is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. Education in the Netherlands is characterized by division: education is oriented toward the needs and background of the pupil.

Education is divided over schools for different age groups, some of which are divided in streams for different educational levels. Schools are furthermore divided in public, special religious , and general-special neutral schools, although there are also a few private schools. The Dutch grading scale runs from 1 very poor to 10 outstanding. Education in the Philippines is provided by public and private schools, colleges, universities, and technical and vocational institutions.

Education in the Soviet Union was organized in a highly centralized government-run system. Education in Zimbabwe is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education for primary and secondary education and the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education, Science and Technology Development for higher education. Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. Edward Kofler November 16, — April 22, was a mathematician who made important contributions to game theory and fuzzy logic by working out the theory of linear partial information.

In statistics, an effect size is a quantitative measure of the magnitude of a phenomenon. Egalitarian dialogue is a dialogue in which contributions are considered according to the validity of their reasoning, instead of according to the status or position of power of those who make them. Einar Thorsrud 30 April — 29 May was a Norwegian psychologist, researcher and professor at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim and University of Oslo, who is known for his work in the field of organizational development OD , particularly in the development of theory around participative work design structures.

ELAN is computer software, a professional tool to manually and semi-automatically annotate and transcribe audio or video recordings. Elise L. Andaya is a cultural anthropologist who is currently employed as an Associate Professor of Anthropology by the University of Albany which is the state university of New York. Ellen Ernst Kossek, a social scientist, is an American academic who is known for research on work, family, and personal life. Ellen Markman is Lewis M. Terman Professor of Psychology at Stanford University.

Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information. Emerald Publishing Limited is a scholarly publisher of academic journals and books in the fields of management, business, education, library studies, health care, and engineering. In philosophy, emergentism is the belief in emergence, particularly as it involves consciousness and the philosophy of mind, and as it contrasts or not with reductionism.

In anthropology, folkloristics, and the social and behavioral sciences, emic and etic refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained: emic, from within the social group from the perspective of the subject and etic, from outside from the perspective of the observer. Emma Boona born 17 February is a Ugandan teacher, public administrator and politician.

Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure. Empirical legal studies ELS is an approach to the study of law, legal procedure, and legal theory through the use of empirical research. In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

The Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences is a specialized fifteen-volume Encyclopedia first published in and last published in Energy policy is the manner in which a given entity often governmental has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production, distribution and consumption. Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles to the professional practice of engineering. Engineering management is the application of the practice of management to the practice of engineering.

English studies usually called simply English is an academic discipline taught in primary, secondary, and post-secondary education in English-speaking countries; it is not to be confused with English taught as a foreign language, which is a distinct discipline. Enid Mumford 6 March — 7 April was a British social scientist, computer scientist and Professor Emerita of Manchester University and a Visiting Fellow at Manchester Business School, largely known for her work on human factors and socio-technical systems.

Bishop Enrique San Pedro, S. Environmental determinism also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories. Environmental journalism is the collection, verification, production, distribution and exhibition of information regarding current events, trends, issues and people that are associated with the non-human world with which humans necessarily interact.

Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings. Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment. Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution who, when, and where and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. The Erasmus Prize is an annual prize awarded by the board of the Praemium Erasmianum Foundation to individuals or institutions that have made exceptional contributions to culture, society, or social science in Europe and the rest of the world.

Eric Henry Monkkonen August 17, in Kansas City, Missouri — May 30, in Culver City, California was an American urban and social science historian who conducted authoritative studies on the history of crime as well as urban development. Eric Robert Wolf February 1, — March 6, was an anthropologist, best known for his studies of peasants, Latin America, and his advocacy of Marxist perspectives within anthropology. Erik Rinde 17 March — 28 May was a Norwegian jurist who became a pioneer of social sciences in Norway.

Erlendur Haraldsson born is a professor emeritus of psychology on the faculty of social science at the University of Iceland. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel 16 February — 9 August was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista.

Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

Erving Goffman 11 June — 19 November was a Canadian-American sociologist and writer, considered by some "the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth century". Erwin J. Haeberle born 30 March is a German social scientist and sexologist. Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism is a peer-reviewed academic journal and the official journal of the American Humanist Association. The Estonian Academy of Arts Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA is the only public university in Estonia providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation-restoration.

ETH Library is the largest public scientific and technical library in Switzerland. Ethics in technology is a sub-field of ethics addressing the ethical questions specific to the Technology Age. Ethnic and Racial Studies is a peer-reviewed social science academic journal that publishes scholarly articles and book reviews on anthropology, cultural studies, ethnicity and race, and sociology. Ethnic identity development or ethnic-racial identity ERI development includes the identity formation in an individual's self-categorization in, and psychological attachment to, an ethnic group s.

Within the field of anthropology and other social sciences, ethnography is a form of research that relies on a range of sources of data, but usually tends to rely mainly on participant observation. Ethnoscience has been defined as an attempt "to reconstitute what serves as science for others, their practices of looking after themselves and their bodies, their botanical knowledge, but also their forms of classification, of making connections, etc.

Ethnozoology is the study of the past and present interrelationships between human cultures and the animals in their environment. Etienne Vermeersch born May 2, in Sint-Michiels nowadays part of Bruges is a Belgian moral philosopher, skeptic, opinion maker and debater. The European Academy of Sciences and Arts Academia Scientiarum et Artium Europaea is a learned society of around 1, top scientists and artists who approach the questions facing Europe and the globe in various colloquia and publications.

The European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy EAEPE is a pluralist forum of social scientists that brings together institutional and evolutionary economists broadly defined. The European Association of Libraries and Information Services on Addictions ELISAD — previously called, until end of , European Association of Libraries and Information Services on Alcohol and other Drugs — was a European non-governmental and non-profit making social network of libraries, documentation centres and information services situated in Europe and specialised in alcohol, drugs, tobacco and all other behavioural addictions.

The European Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering contemporary issues in Europe. European studies is a field of study offered by many academic colleges and universities that focuses on current developments in European integration. The European University Institute EUI in Florence, Italy, is an international postgraduate and post-doctoral teaching and research institute established by European Union member states to contribute to cultural and scientific development in the social sciences, in a European perspective.

Europeanisation or Europeanization, see spelling differences refers to a number of related phenomena and patterns of change. Evaluation Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Social Sciences. Everett Carll Ladd, Jr. September 24, December 8, was an American political scientist based at the University of Connecticut. Everett M. Rogers March 6, — October 21, was an eminent American communication theorist and sociologist, who originated the diffusion of innovations theory and introduced the term early adopter.

An evolutionarily stable strategy ESS is a strategy which, if adopted by a population in a given environment, cannot be invaded by any alternative strategy that is initially rare. Evolutionary anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates.

Evolutionary economics is part of mainstream economics as well as a heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology. Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. Existential migration is a term coined by Greg Madison in Existential Analysis, the journal of the Society for Existential Analysis.

An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Power and dominance-submission are two key dimensions of relationships, especially close relationships in which parties rely on one another to achieve their goals and as such it is important to be able to identify indicators of dominance.

The fact—value distinction is the distinction between things that can be known to be true and things that are the personal preferences of individuals. The University of Colombo currently has seven faculties with 41 academic departments and two interdependent schools with five academic departments.

The institute conducts social research both in Norway and internationally. Fardad Fateri is an American business and higher education executive, author, public speaker, philanthropist, and professor. Farooq Adamu Kperogi born , is a Nigerian academic, media scholar, public speaker and newspaper columnist. The fathers' rights movement is a movement whose members are primarily interested in issues related to family law, including child custody and child support that affect fathers and their children.

Fatos Tarifa born is a social scientist and a former diplomat from Albania. The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency of the United States federal courts. Federal University Oye Ekiti is a government-owned and -operated Nigerian university. Federico A. Cordero August 18, — October 9, was a guitarist of classical music.

In ethology and social science, female bonding is the formation of a close personal relationship and patterns of friendship, attachment, and cooperation in females. Orser and Catherine J. Feminist empiricism is a perspective within feminist research that combines the objectives and observations of feminism with the research methods and empiricism.

Fergusson College FC is an autonomous public educational institution offering courses in the streams of Arts and Science in the city of Pune. Fernando Henrique Cardoso born June 18, , also known by his initials FHC, is a Brazilian sociologist, professor and politician who served as the 34th President of Brazil from January 1, to January 1, Field Methods is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Social Sciences.

The Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters is a Finnish academy for natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. Flaming is a hostile and insulting interaction between persons over the Internet, often involving the use of profanity. Florian Witold Znaniecki 15 January — 23 March was a Polish philosopher and sociologist who taught and wrote in Poland and in the United States.

Floyd Henry Allport August 22, — October 15, was an American psychologist who is often considered "the father of experimental social psychology", having played a key role in the creation of social psychology as a legitimate field of behavioral science. A focus group is a small, but demographically diverse group of people and whose reactions are studied especially in market research or political analysis in guided or open discussions about a new product or something else to determine the reactions that can be expected from a larger population.

The Fordham University Press is a publishing house, a division of Fordham University, that publishes primarily in the humanities and the social sciences. Forgiveness is the intentional and voluntary process by which a victim undergoes a change in feelings and attitude regarding an offense, lets go of negative emotions such as vengefulness, forswears recompense from or punishment of the offender, however legally or morally justified it might be, and with an increased ability to wish the offender well.

Formal sciences are formal language disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, robotics, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, and theoretical linguistics. Foundation Mattei Dogan is located in Paris, France, and is devoted exclusively to the social sciences. The Foundation University for Health Sciences is a private educational and health care university founded in Statistics is the theory and application of mathematics to the scientific method including hypothesis generation, experimental design, sampling, data collection, data summarization, estimation, prediction and inference from those results to the population from which the experimental sample was drawn.

Roosevelt on Monday, January 6, Frame analysis also called framing analysis is a multi-disciplinary social science research method used to analyze how people understand situations and activities. In the social sciences, framing comprises a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how individuals, groups, and societies, organize, perceive, and communicate about reality.

French—Iranian relations are the international relations between France and Iran. Dr Frances Pinter born 13 June is the founder and executive director of Knowledge Unlatched, a not-for-profit company creating a global library consortium enabling sustainable open access academic book publishing.

Franco Archibugi Rome, Italy 18 September is an Italian scholar in political, economic and social sciences, university professor in economic policy and spatial planning. Franklin Benjamin Sanborn December 15, — February 24, was an American journalist, author, and reformer. Fred Stephen Roberts born June 19, from Roberts' web site, retrieved Fredric Jameson born April 14, is an American literary critic and Marxist political theorist.

French immersion is a form of bilingual education in which a child who does not speak French as his or her first language receives instruction in school in French. Friedensau Adventist University in German "Theologische Hochschule Friedensau" is a part of the Seventh-day Adventist education system, the world's second largest Christian school system.

Friedhelm Gehrmann born 12 June in Dortmund is a German scientist in the field of economics and social sciences. Friedrich Engels. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism. Friedrich Heckmann born March 6, is the director of the research institute European forum for migration studies efms and emeritus professor of Sociology at the School of Social and Economic Sciences at the University of Bamberg.

Friedrich Pollock 22 May — 16 December was a German social scientist and philosopher. In sociology, a friend of a friend is a human contact that exists because of a mutual friend. Fairman about freedom of speech, the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, censorship, and use of the word fuck in society.

Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific research, in the areas of both "hard" science and technology and social science. Futures studies also called futurology is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. Futurists or futurologists are scientists and social scientists whose specialty is futurology or the attempt to systematically explore predictions and possibilities about the future and how they can emerge from the present, whether that of human society in particular or of life on Earth in general.

A fuzzy cognitive map is a cognitive map within which the relations between the elements e. Gabriel A. Almond January 12, — December 25, was a political scientist from the United States best known for his pioneering work on comparative politics, political development, and political culture.

Gaia philosophy named after Gaia, Greek goddess of the Earth is a broadly inclusive term for related concepts that living organisms on a planet will affect the nature of their environment in order to make the environment more suitable for life. Gail Jefferson 22 April — 21 February was, along with Harvey Sacks and Emanuel Schegloff, one of the founders of the area of research known as conversation analysis CA.

Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit. Game studies, or ludology, is the study of games, the act of playing them, and the players and cultures surrounding them. Gathering Blue is a young adult-social science novel, written by Lois Lowry and released in the year In mathematics, a Gaussian function, often simply referred to as a Gaussian, is a function of the form: for arbitrary real constants, and.

Gavin Kitching B. Phil is a British author and professor of social sciences and international relations formerly head of School Politics and International Relations at the University of New South Wales, where he has taught since Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.

Gender sensitization precides over gender sensitivity which refers to the modification of behavior by raising awareness of gender equality concerns. Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis. Gene V Glass born June 19, is an American statistician and researcher working in educational psychology and the social sciences.

Generalized game theory is an extension of game theory incorporating social theory concepts such as norm, value, belief, role, social relationship, and institution. The generalized other is a concept introduced by George Herbert Mead into the social sciences, and used especially in the field of symbolic interactionism. A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively. Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.

Georg Simmel 1 March — 28 September was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic. George Christopher Archibald 30 December — 22 February , briefly 2nd Baron Archibald in , also known as Chris Archibald, was a British economist, a researcher and professor. Naval War College. George Malcolm Stratton September 26, — October 8, was a psychologist who pioneered the study of perception in vision by wearing special glasses which inverted images up and down and left and right.

George W. Georges Goyau 31 March — 25 October was a French historian and essayist specializing in religious history. Georges Menahem is a French sociologist and economist whose work employs methods drawn from economics, sociology and statistics. Gerald L. Gerhard Weisser 9 February - 25 October was a social scientist, university teacher, Social Democrat and expert policy advisor. Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing.

The Gerstein Science Information Centre is the University of Toronto's flagship library supporting the sciences and health sciences. Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Giambattista Vico B. Giovan Battista Vico, 23 June — 23 January was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment.

Gian Vittorio Baldi 30 October - 23 March was an Italian film producer, director and screenwriter. Gina Neff is a media and communication scholar whose work centers on the social and organizational impact of new communication technologies. Giorgi George V. The Giornale degli economisti e Annali di economia, established in Padua in , is an Italian academic journal of economics. The Glasgow University Dialectic Society, re-instituted in , is a student society at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, committed to the promotion of debating, logic, ethics and literary discussion at the university.

Glastonbury High School is a public, co-educational high school located in Glastonbury, Connecticut. Glimpse is an interdisciplinary journal that examines the functions, processes, and effects of vision and its implications for being, knowing, and constructing our world s. Global radiology, a subspecialty of diagnostic radiology, comprises the study and practice of improving access to radiology resources in poor and developing countries, and addressing global health inequities through the application of radiology.

The global warming controversy concerns the public debate over whether global warming is occurring, how much has occurred in modern times, what has caused it, what its effects will be, whether any action should be taken to curb it, and if so what that action should be.

Gloria Criscione Pineda, known artistically as "Gloria del Paraguay" is a Paraguayan soprano, recognized for her versatile voice. This is a glossary of terms that are or have been considered areas of study in mathematics. This glossary of education-related terms is based on how they commonly are used in Wikipedia articles.

Godfrey Baldacchino born 25 April is a Maltese and Canadian social scientist. Goldsmiths, University of London, is a public research university in London, England, specialising in the arts, design, humanities, and social sciences. Andrew Gordon Speedie Pask 28 June — 29 March was an English author, inventor, educational theorist, cybernetician and psychologist who made significant contributions to cybernetics, instructional psychology, experimental epistemology and educational technology.

A graduate school sometimes shortened as grad school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees i. The, or GSAPS, is an independent graduate school focusing on social sciences and international relations. Graduate unemployment, or educated unemployment, is unemployment among people with an academic degree.

HOW LONG DID IT TAKE TO FILM BET ON IT IN HIGH SCHOOL MUSICAL 2

Alfred North Whitehead 15 February — 30 December was an English mathematician and philosopher. Algorithmic bias occurs when a computer system behaves in ways that reflects the implicit values of humans involved in that data collection, selection, or use. Ambient awareness is a term used by social scientists to describe a new form of peripheral social awareness.

The American Academy of Political and Social Science was founded in to promote progress in the social sciences. The American Association for the Advancement of Science AAAS is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

American Behavioral Scientist is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the fields of social and behavioral sciences. American Institutes for Research AIR is a nonprofit, nonpartisan behavioral and social science research, evaluation, assessment and technical assistance organization based in Washington, D.

One of the world's largest social science research organizations, AIR has more than 1, staff in locations across the United States and abroad. The American Journal of Evaluation is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research on methods of evaluation. Established in as the first US scholarly journal in its field, American Journal of Sociology AJS presents pathbreaking work from all areas of sociology, with an emphasis on theory building and innovative methods.

The American Psychological Association APA is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around , members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

The American University of Kuwait is a private liberal arts institution based on the American model of higher education in Kuwait City, Kuwait. An analytic narrative is a social science research method seeking to combine historical narratives with the rigor of rational choice theory, particularly through the use of game theory.

Andrea Jeftanovic b. Santiago de Chile, is a Chilean author, sociologist and academic. Andreas G. Andreas Hompland born 18 September in Kvinesdal is a Norwegian social scientist, journalist, magazine editor and non-fiction writer.

Andrew Kiiza Kaluya Namitego born 8 February is a Ugandan social worker, entrepreneur and politician. Andrew Sluyter is an American social scientist who currently teaches as an associate professor in the Geography and Anthropology Department of the Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge.

Andrew Kent Toolson born January 19, is an American retired professional basketball player. Angela W. Angelline Asio Osegge, also Angelina Osege born 8 December is a Ugandan female social worker and politician, who serves as the incumbent Member of Parliament representing the Soroti District Women Constituency in the 10th Ugandan Parliament to Animal training refers to teaching animals specific responses to specific conditions or stimuli.

Anita Isaacs, M. Anna Lundh born April 5, is a Swedish television personality, adventurer and model. The Annales school is a group of historians associated with a style of historiography developed by French historians in the 20th century to stress long-term social history. Anne Norton born is an American professor of political science and comparative literature. The Annenberg Foundation is a family foundation that provides funding and support to non-profit organizations in the United States and around the world.

In statistics and social sciences, an antecedent variable is a variable that can help to explain the apparent relationship or part of the relationship between other variables that are nominally in a cause and effect relationship. Anthropological linguistics is the subfield of linguistics and anthropology, which deals with the place of language in its wider social and cultural context, and its role in making and maintaining cultural practices and societal structures.

Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present. Anthroposophy is the philosophy founded by Rudolf Steiner that postulates the existence of an objective, intellectually comprehensible spiritual world, accessible to human experience through inner development.

In social theory and philosophy, antihumanism or anti-humanism is a theory that is critical of traditional humanism and traditional ideas about humanity and the human condition. In social science, antipositivism also interpretivism and negativism proposes that the social realm cannot be studied with the scientific method of investigation applied to the natural world; investigation of the social realm requires a different epistemology.

Antonia Zerbisias born in Montreal, Quebec , The Ryerson Review of Journalism Spring is a Canadian journalist associated with the Toronto Star from until she took early retirement from the paper on October 31, Anwar M. Shaikh born is a Pakistani American economist working in the classical tradition. APA style is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal articles and books, and is commonly used for citing sources within the field of social sciences.

Apache Taverna is an open source software tool for designing and executing workflows, initially created by the myGrid project under the name Taverna Workbench, now a project under the Apache incubator. Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction is a subgenre of science fiction, science fantasy or horror in which the Earth's technological civilization is collapsing or has collapsed.

Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry. Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archival research is a type of primary research which involves seeking out and extracting evidence from original archival records. The Arctic Institute of North America is a multi-disciplinary research institute and educational organization located in the University of Calgary.

Arden: The World of Shakespeare was a proposed massively multiplayer online game to be created by a team led by Edward Castronova of Indiana University. Arnold M. Eisen, Ph. Arnold Joseph Toynbee 14 April — 22 October was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books. Aron Flam born 12 June is a Swedish stand-up comedian, screenwriter, author, television host, podcaster, and actor.

Arthur C. An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. Arts Emergency is a British charity working with to year-olds in further education from diverse backgrounds. Aravind Narayan Das popularly known as Aravind N. Das was a social scientist, journalist, activist and a documentary filmmaker from Bihar.

Ascribed characteristics, as used in the social sciences, refers to properties of an individual attained at birth, by inheritance, or through the aging process. Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham Surrey, United Kingdom.

An associate degree or associate's degree is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study intended to usually last two years or more. The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists APECS is a worldwide association of early career scientists undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, and early career faculty interested in the polar regions and the cryosphere generally.

Astrology consists of a number of belief systems that hold that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events or descriptions of personality in the human world. In biology, an atavism is a modification of a biological structure whereby an ancestral trait reappears after having been lost through evolutionary change in previous generations. Atenea is a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal containing research and critical reflections on Chilean and Latin American culture including arts, literature, history, sociology, and other sciences.

The Ateneo de Ponce English: Ponce Atheneum is a nonprofit, civic, non governmental organization located in Ponce, Puerto Rico, that seeks to preserve and promote Ponce's cultural traditions. The Athabasca oil sands or tar sands are large deposits of bitumen or extremely heavy crude oil, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada — roughly centred on the boomtown of Fort McMurray.

Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power God or other deities.

Autoethnography, is a form of qualitative research in which an author uses self-reflection and writing to explore their personal experience and connect this autobiographical story to wider cultural, political, and social meanings and understandings. The Bachelor of Applied Science, often abbreviated as B. The Bachelor of Economics BEc or BEcon is a three-year academic degree in the social sciences encompassing both qualitiative and quantitative courses. Bachelor of International Development, also known as Bachelor of Science in International Development, is a multidisciplinary degree in the branch of social science.

The purpose of the Bachelor of Liberal Studies degree is to provide students with a solid multidisciplinary preparation in the Humanities, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences and the Arts, subsequently allowing them to pursue careers in education, business, government, and other such fields. A bachelor's degree from Middle Latin baccalaureus or baccalaureate from Modern Latin baccalaureatus is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years depending on institution and academic discipline.

The Baillieu Library is the University of Melbourne's largest discipline library, housing impressive collections relating to teaching and research in the arts, humanities and social sciences. The Balkan lynx Lynx lynx balcanicus syn. Lynx lynx martinoi is a subspecies of the Eurasian lynx in the genus Lynx. Bamberg is a town in Upper Franconia, Germany, on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main. Barrington Moore Jr. Basawon Singh, also known as Basawon Sinha, died 7 April was an Indian independence activist and a campaigner for the rights of the underprivileged, industrial labourers and agricultural workers.

The Anne T. Bass Library, formerly Cross Campus Library, is a Yale University Library building holding frequently-used materials in the humanities and social sciences. Behavioral ethics is a new field of social scientific research that seeks to understand how people actually behave when confronted with ethical dilemmas. Behavioral geography is an approach to human geography that examines human behavior using a disaggregate approach.

Behavioral medicine is concerned with the integration of knowledge in the biological, behavioral, psychological, and social sciences relevant to health and illness. Behavioralism or behaviouralism in British English is an approach in political science, which emerged in the s in the United States. The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.

Benjamin K. Benjamin Z. Benoit B. Ernst was an American lawyer, magician and associate of Harry Houdini. The school was established in Biblical studies is the academic application of a set of diverse disciplines to the study of the Bible the Tanakh and the New Testament. This bibliography of anthropology lists some notable publications in the field of anthropology, including its various subfields.

Big History is an American television documentary series narrated by Bryan Cranston, which originally aired on H2 in Bill L. Billy Giles 3 September , Belfast — 25 September , Belfast was an Ulster Volunteer Force volunteer who later became active in politics following his release from the Maze Prison in after serving 14 years of a life sentence for murder.

Bioculture is the combination of biological and cultural factors that affect human behavior. Biodemography is the science dealing with the integration of biological theory and demography. Biographical research is a qualitative research approach aligned to the social interpretive paradigm of research.

BioSocieties is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the scholarly exploration of the crucial social, ethical and policy implications of developments in the life sciences and biomedicine. Blaise Pascal 19 June — 19 August was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.

A blind or blinded-experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is masked kept from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known. Bob De Schutter is a Belgian video game designer and researcher, who is the C.

The Bobo doll experiment was the collective name of experiments conducted by Albert Bandura in and when he studied children's behavior after watching an adult model act aggressively towards a Bobo doll, a toy that gets up by itself to a standing position when it is knocked down. Bona fide group theory is a theoretical perspective of communication in small groups that was initially developed by Linda Putnam and Cynthia Stohl in the s. Boris Meissner August 10, Pskov - September 10, Cologne was a German lawyer and social scientist, specializing in international law and Eastern European history and politics.

The College of General Studies offers a two-year, general education core curriculum within Boston University. Boundaries of the Mind is a thorough treatment of the role and conceptualization of the individual in psychology, by author Robert A. Wilson, a professor in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Alberta. Bounded rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision.

The Bradford Hill criteria, otherwise known as Hill's criteria for causation, are a group of 9 principles, established in by the English epidemiologist Sir Austin Bradford Hill. Brain Bowl is an academic competition in which Florida Community College teams are pitted against one another.

Brainwashing also known as mind control, menticide, coercive persuasion, thought control, thought reform, and re-education is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques. Abraham Bram Peper born 13 February is a Dutch sociologist and former politician. The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups.

Branko Bokun — was an author of in the fields of sociology and psychology. Brendan Nyhan born is an American political scientist and professor at Dartmouth College. Brian J. Byrne born is an Australian social scientist specializing in applied and psycholinguistics, an emeritus professor at the University of New England in Australia, and lead author of publications and articles on research in his field.

Briercrest College and Seminary is a private Evangelical Christian post-secondary educational institution located in Caronport, Saskatchewan, Canada. The British Academy is the United Kingdom's national academy for the humanities and the social sciences. The broken windows theory is a criminological theory that visible signs of crime, anti-social behavior and civil disorder create an urban environment that encourages further crime and disorder, including serious crimes.

Brooklyn Technical High School, commonly referred to as Brooklyn Tech, and administratively designated as High School , is a New York City public high school that specializes in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The college is affiliated to Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapeeth. In social science, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks.

By Common Consent BCC is a group blog featuring commentary and discussion especially of contemporary Mormon culture, thought and current events. By-elections to the 40th Canadian Parliament were held to fill vacancies in the House of Commons of Canada between the federal election and the federal election.

The Cagayan State University CSU is the largest state institution of higher learning in the Cagayan Valley Region, in terms of enrollment and number of curricular program offerings. The California Institute of Technology abbreviated Caltech The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

Calixto O. The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation is a Portuguese institution under private law and of general public utility, perpetual in nature, with its statutory purposes spanning the arts, beneficence, science, and education.

The Cambridge School of historiography was a school of thought which approached the study of the British Empire from the imperialist point of view. Camille Z. Charles is Walter H. The Campbell Collaboration describes itself as a "nonprofit organization that aims to help people make well-informed decisions about the effects of interventions in the social, behavioral, and educational arenas. Campbell's law is an adage developed by Donald T.

Campbell, a psychologist and social scientist who often wrote about research methodology, which states "The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor.

But when test scores become the goal of the teaching process, they both lose their value as indicators of educational status and distort the educational process in undesirable ways. The campus of the University of California, Irvine is known for its concentric layout with academic and service buildings arrayed around a central park, and for its Brutalist architecture. The University of Nottingham operates from four campuses in Nottinghamshire and from two overseas campuses, one in Ningbo, China and the other in Semenyih, Malaysia.

The Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences, known as the Federation, is a member based organization and the national voice for researchers in the humanities and social sciences in Canada. Candidatus magisterii male , or candidata magisterii female , abbreviated as cand. Candidatus rerum politicarum male , Candidata rerum politicarum female , abbreviated cand.

Carbon accounting refers generally to processes undertaken to "measure" amounts of carbon dioxide equivalents emitted by an entity. Carlos Moore born Charles Moore Wedderburn in Cuba, 4 November is a writer and social scientist dedicated to African and Afroamerican history and culture. Carnegie Corporation of New York was established by Andrew Carnegie during "to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding". Carol Voisin born January 29, is a member of the faculty at Southern Oregon University, where she teaches ethics, critical thinking, and writing.

In the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study the case , as well as its related contextual conditions. Cassandre is a free open source software for computer assisted qualitative data analysis and interpretation in humanities and social sciences.

Catholic social teaching is the Catholic doctrines on matters of human dignity and common good in society. The Cecil H. A non-biological entity with a cellular organizational structure also known as a cellular organization, cellular system, nodal organization, nodal structure, et cetera is set up in such a way that it mimics how natural systems within biology work, with individual 'cells' or 'nodes' working somewhat independently to establish goals and tasks, administer those things, and troubleshoot difficulties.

The UCD Center for Mind and Brain is a research and training unit at the University of California, Davis dedicated to understanding the nature of the human mind from interdisciplinary perspectives. Established in through a grant given by the American business magnate, industrialist and philanthropist John D. It initially consisted of two separate schools: the Jaro Industrial School for boys and the Baptist Missionary Training School that trains ministers and other Christian workers..

Retrieved 4 April In , women began to be admitted to the school for boys, and in the school started offering high school education. The school for boys became a junior college and started offering college degrees in and changed its name to Central Philippine College. In the junior college became a senior college and two years after it in , the Baptist Missionary Training School merged with the theology department of the college..

Retrieved 7 June In , the college attained university status.. Retrieved Iloilo Mission Hospital, the university's hospital which was established in by the Presbyterian Americans, is the first American and Protestant founded hospital in the Philippines, predates the founding of CPU by four years.. Retrieved 4 May In the same year, the CPU Republic Central Philippine University Republic , the university's official student governing body, was organized, making it as the first established student governing body in South East Asia.

The university maintains to be non-sectarian and independent but affiliated with the Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches and maintains fraternal ties with the International Ministries of the American Baptist Churches, known before as the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society.

CPU consists of eighteen schools and colleges that provides instruction in basic education all the way up to the post-graduate levels. In the undergraduate and graduate levels, its disciplines include accountancy, agriculture, arts and sciences, business, computer studies, education, engineering, hospitality management, law, mass communication, medical laboratory science, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, lifestyle and fitness, real estate management, rehabilitative science, tourism, and theology.

Retrieved January The annual prestigious national Bombo Music Festival is hosted by the university and is held at the university's Rose Memorial Auditorium.. Retrieved 4 December The Central University of Ecuador Universidad Central del Ecuador is a national university located in Quito, Ecuador and is the oldest and largest university in Ecuador, and one of the oldest in the Americas.

It is nationally accredited and recognized by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Nicaragua via the Council of National Universities Consejo Nacional de Universidades in official government session No. International Association of Universities also listed UCN in the international handbook of accredited universities published by the United Nations.

The CWDS was founded in by a group of scholars and activists committed to expanding and transforming accepted notions of gender-related research and action across the social sciences. Centro Peruano de Estudios Sociales Peruvian Center for Social Studies is a civil society organization specializing in rural development based in Peru.

Charles A. Reich born May 20, is an American legal and social scholar as well as writer who was a Professor at Yale Law School when he wrote the paean to the s counterculture and youth movement, The Greening of America. Charles Battershill, born June 17, was briefly the nominated Green Party of Canada candidate for the Toronto--Danforth federal electoral riding.

The Charles E. Charles E. Fritz — 5 May was an American scientist pioneering disaster research during and following the Second World War. Charles Henry Thompson July 19, — January 16, was the first African American to obtain a doctoral degree in educational psychology.

Charles King Armstrong is a historian and the Korea Foundation Professor of Korean Studies in the Social Sciences at Columbia University, whose body of works in became the center of controversy with other Korean studies scholars accusing him of source fabrication and plagiarism. Charles Oscar Paullin 20 July — 1 September was an important naval historian, who made a significant early contribution to the administrative history of the United States Navy.

Charles Tilly May 27, — April 29, was an American sociologist, political scientist, and historian who wrote on the relationship between politics and society. Charles Value Chapin, M. Charles Harold Zastrow born is an American social scientist and Professor of Social Work at the George Williams College of the Aurora University, known for his work on the theory and practice of social work.

Chase a journalist and publisher from Michigan , and Harrison V. Chase a university social scientist from Florida. The Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange CCKF is a private, non-profit organisation located in Taipei, Taiwan, that provides support for research grants on Chinese studies in the humanities and social sciences at overseas institutions. The current status of Chinese intellectuals reflects traditions established in the imperial period.

In the context of Christian theology, Christian anthropology refers to the study of the human "anthropology" as it relates to God. Christian right or religious right is a term used mainly in the United States to label conservative Christian political factions that are characterized by their strong support of socially conservative policies.

Christian views on environmentalism vary among different Christians and Christian denominations. Christina Chan born 25 April is a political activist in Hong Kong, known for her stand on human rights, democracy and Tibetan independence. Christina Marie Hoff Sommers born September 28, is an American author, philosopher specialising in ethics, and resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute AEI , a conservative think tank.

Christoph Deutschmann born 15 November in Stuttgart is a German sociologist. Christopher S. Celenza born is an American scholar of Renaissance history and the current Dean of Georgetown College, where he is also a professor of history and classics.

Christopher Eric Hitchens 13 April — 15 December was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist. The circulation of elite is a theory of regime change described by Italian social scientist Vilfredo Pareto — Circumpolar studies also Northern studies is an interdisciplinary field of study combining social sciences and geosciences and working with topics like land, environment, peoples, cultures, and politics in Arctic and Subarctic states, namely the United States Alaska , Canada, Denmark Greenland , Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia.

A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source not always the original source. A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. Civic Education Project CEP is international non-profit organization founded in by group of professionals and scholars from America.

The Claremont Colleges are an American consortium of five undergraduate and two graduate schools of higher education located in Claremont, California, a city east of downtown Los Angeles and west of downtown San Bernardino. CLARIN is a European research network working in the field of archiving and processing of language-related resources in the humanities and social sciences.

Clark P. Johnson born July 21, is a Minnesota politician and member of the Minnesota House of Representatives. Clark University is an American private research university located in Worcester, Massachusetts. Claude Fischler born is a French social scientist sociology, anthropology.

Claudine Gay is Wilbur A. Climate change denial, or global warming denial, is part of the global warming controversy. Climate resilience can be generally defined as the capacity for a socio-ecological system to: 1 absorb stresses and maintain function in the face of external stresses imposed upon it by climate change and 2 adapt, reorganize, and evolve into more desirable configurations that improve the sustainability of the system, leaving it better prepared for future climate change impacts.

Co-coaching is a structured practice of coaching that involves peers alike with the ultimate goal to gain peer knowledge in learning how to coach or bettering their coaching techniques. Coastal Christian School is a private, non-denominational Christian school from Kindergarten through 12th grade. In the social sciences, coding is an analytical process in which data, in both quantitative form such as questionnaires results or qualitative form such as interview transcripts are categorized to facilitate analysis.

Cognitive bias mitigation is the prevention and reduction of the negative effects of cognitive biases — unconscious, automatic influences on human judgment and decision making that reliably produce reasoning errors. The term cohort effect is used in social science to describe variations in the characteristics of an area of study such as the incidence of a characteristic or the age at onset over time among individuals who are defined by some shared temporal experience or common life experience, such as year of birth, or year of exposure to radiation.

A cohort study is a particular form of longitudinal study that sample a cohort a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically those who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation , performing a cross-section at intervals through time.

El Colegio de la Frontera Norte commonly known as El Colef, English: The College of the Northern Border is a prestigious Mexican institute of higher education, specializing in teaching and research in the social sciences with focus on border issues. Before deleting any text please note that some of the text contained within this article has been authorised for use on a CC-BY-SA licence.

Sir Colin Renshaw Lucas, born 25 August is a historian and university administrator. In mathematics and social science, a collaboration graph is a graph modeling some social network where the vertices represent participants of that network usually individual people and where two distinct participants are joined by an edge whenever there is a collaborative relationship between them of a particular kind.

A College of Arts and Sciences or School of Arts and Sciences is most commonly a unit within a university which focuses on instruction of the liberal arts and pure sciences, especially in North America and the Philippines, although they frequently include programs and faculty in fine arts, social sciences, and other disciplines.

The College of Arts and Sciences of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, offers a number of research and educational programs in the arts, humanities, social sciences, physical and biological sciences, and mathematics. College of Liberal Arts is the humanities and social sciences college at the University of Nevada.

Columbia is a census-designated place in Howard County, Maryland, United States, and is one of the principal cities of the Baltimore metropolitan area. The Columbian College is one of the most prestigious schools of political sciences, history, English, and economics in the United States. The Combating Terrorism Center is an academic institution at the United States Military Academy USMA in West Point, New York that provides education, research and policy analysis in the specialty areas of terrorism, counterterrorism, homeland security and internal conflict.

Common factors theory, a theory guiding some research in clinical psychology and counseling psychology, proposes that different approaches and evidence-based practices in psychotherapy and counseling share common factors that account for much of the effectiveness of a psychological treatment. Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by "common to" nearly all people.

In applied statistics, e. Communicology is the scholarly and academic study of how we create and use messages to affect our social environment. In political and social sciences, communism from Latin communis, "common, universal" is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

Communitas is a Latin noun commonly referring either to an unstructured community in which people are equal, or to the very spirit of community. A community is a small or large social unit a group of living things that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity. Community practice also known as macro practice is a branch of social work in the United States of America that focuses on larger social systems and social change, and is tied to the historical roots of United States social work.

Comparative research is a research methodology in the social sciences that aims to make comparisons across different countries or cultures. This is a conversion chart showing how the Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress Classification systems organize resources by concept, in part for the purpose of assigning call numbers. Compendium is a computer program and social science tool that facilitates the mapping and management of ideas and arguments.

Complete spatial randomness CSR describes a point process whereby point events occur within a given study area in a completely random fashion. Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions.

Compliance gaining is a term used in the social sciences that encompasses the intentional act of altering another's behavior. Computational social science refers to the academic sub-disciplines concerned with computational approaches to the social sciences. Computational sociology is a branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena.

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system. Computer-assisted reporting describes the use of computers to gather and analyze the data necessary to write news stories. Cashman in , at a workshop attended by individuals interested in using technology to support people in their work.

Conant Hall is one of several graduate student residence halls at Harvard University. Concordia University commonly referred to as Concordia is a public comprehensive university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada on unceded Indigenous lands. Conflict continuum is a model or concept used by various social science researchers in modelling conflict, usually going from low "irritations" to high "explosiveness" intensity.

Confluenze - Rivista di studi iberomericani is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal established in Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong. American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.

Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge is a book by biologist E. Wilson, in which the author discusses methods that have been used to unite the sciences and might in the future unite them with the humanities. The Constitution of the Italian Republic Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December , with votes in favour and 62 against.

Construct validity is "the degree to which a test measures what it claims, or purports, to be measuring. Contentment is a mental or emotional state of satisfaction maybe drawn from being at ease in one's situation, body and mind. The German education system or continental education system is a higher education model, often contrasted with the Anglo-Saxon education system and the Scandinavian education system.

Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt changes or discontinuities. Cooperation sometimes written as co-operation is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for common, mutual, or some underlying benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.

In social science generally and linguistics specifically, the cooperative principle describes how effective communication in conversation is achieved in common social situations, that is, how listeners and speakers must act cooperatively and mutually accept one another to be understood in a particular way.

In the social sciences, coordinated management of meaning CMM provides understanding of how individuals create, coordinate and manage meanings in their process of communication. As used by copyright theorists, the term copynorm or more frequently copynorms is used to refer to a normalized social standard regarding the ethical issue of duplicating copyrighted material. The Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy JLPP is a law review published by students at Cornell Law School, First published in July , JLPP publishes articles, commentaries, book reviews, and student notes that explore the intersections of law, government, public policy, and the social sciences, with a focus on current domestic issues and their implications.

Corporate capitalism is a term used in social science and economics to describe a capitalist marketplace characterized by the dominance of hierarchical, bureaucratic corporations. In statistics, many statistical tests calculate correlations between variables and when two variables are found to be correlated, it is tempting to assume that this shows that one variable causes the other.

Cosumnes River College is a two-year community college located on the southern edge of Sacramento in Sacramento County, California. A couple interview or joint couple interview, or more broadly conjoint interview, joint interview or dyadic interview is a method of qualitative research used in the social sciences, where two spouses are interviewed together.

Coursera is an online learning platform founded by Stanford professors Andrew Ng and Daphne Koller that offers courses, specializations, and degrees. Craig Bruce Reucassel born 1 January is an Australian television and radio comedian. Crime analysis is a law enforcement function that involves systematic analysis for identifying and analyzing patterns and trends in crime and disorder. Laboratoire CRISES or Centre de recherches interdisciplinaires en sciences humaines et sociales is a French research centre in humanities and social sciences, founded in Montpellier, France, in January Critical psychology is a perspective on psychology that draws extensively on critical theory.

Critical race theory CRT is a theoretical framework in the social sciences that uses critical theory to examine society and culture as they relate to categorizations of race, law, and power. Critical realism, a philosophical approach associated with Roy Bhaskar — , combines a general philosophy of science transcendental realism with a philosophy of social science critical naturalism to describe an interface between the natural and social worlds.

Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. Criticism of science addresses and refines problems within science in order to improve science as a whole and its role in society. Cross-Cultural Research formerly Behavior Science Research is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Social Sciences. Cross-cultural studies, sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology and sister sciences sociology, psychology, economics, political science that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture.

Cross-plot is synonym for scatter plots used primarily in the Earth Sciences and Social Sciences to describe a specialized chart that compares multiple measurements made at a single time or location along two or more axes. In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities culture.

A cultural artifact, or cultural artefact see American and British English spelling differences , is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. A cultural critic is a critic of a given culture, usually as a whole and typically on a radical basis. Cultural framework is a term used in social science to explain traditions, value systems, myths and symbols that are common in a given society.

In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm; the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.

Since the beginning of her career in the early s, American singer and songwriter Madonna has had a social-cultural impact on the world through her recordings, attitude, clothing and lifestyle. The cultural turn is a movement beginning in the early s among scholars in the humanities and social sciences to make culture the focus of contemporary debates; it also describes a shift in emphasis toward meaning and away from a positivist epistemology. The culture of Paris,in France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups.

The culture of Sussex refers to the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with Sussex and its people. The culture of the People's Republic of China is a rich and varied blend of traditional Chinese culture with communist and other international modern and post-modern influences. Culturology or science of culture is a branch of social sciences concerned with the scientific understanding, description, analysis, and prediction of cultures as a whole.

Customer relationship management CRM is an approach to manage a company's interaction with current and potential customers. The Czech Academy of Sciences abbr. The Academy is the leading non-university public research institution in the Czech Republic. Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences SVU is a nonprofit, nonpolitical, cultural organization, dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge, the free dissemination of ideas, and the fostering of contacts among people.

Boys Senior Secondary School is a senior secondary high school located in Gopalapuram, a central part of Chennai, India. Daeduk College is a private technical college in the Yuseong-gu district of Daejeon, a major city of South Korea. Dafna Lemish is an Israeli media researcher in the fields of children, youth and leisure culture; as well as construction of gender identity in the media.

Damond L. Daniel E. Daniel Nettle born is a British behavioural researcher, biologist and social scientist. Daniel Yankelovich December 29, — September 22, was a public opinion analyst and social scientist. Darko Bratina 30 March — 23 September was an Italian sociologist, film theorist and politician of Slovene ethnicity. Darmanto Jatman 16 August — 13 January Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic fashion, which then enables one to answer relevant questions and evaluate outcomes.

Data science is an interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from data in various forms, both structured and unstructured, similar to data mining. David Verge Fleischer is an American born Brazilian social scientist and professor.

David Glenn Hays November 17, — July 26, was a linguist, computer scientist and social scientist best known for his early work in machine translation and computational linguistics. David Paul Berenberg March 17, — March 7, was an American socialist teacher, editor, and writer. In law and government, de facto or;, "in fact" describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces for example, by early entrance to the market. Jeremiah Joseph Duggan 10 November — 27 March was a British student in Paris who died during a visit to Wiesbaden, Germany, after being struck by several cars on a dual carriageway. Debi Prasanna Pattanayak born 14 March is an Indian professor, linguist, social scientist and author. The Decade of the Mind Project is an international initiative to advance scientific understanding of how the mind and complex behaviors are related to the activity of human brains.

Dedoose is a web application for mixed methods research developed by academics from UCLA, with support from the William T. Grant Foundation, and is the successor to EthnoNotes. Demographic gravitation is a concept of "social physics", introduced by Princeton University astrophysicist John Quincy Stewart in Descriptive knowledge, also declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions.

Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns. Design Studies is an academic discipline that pursues a critical understanding of design and its effects through analytical and practical modes of inquiry.

Desmond Green born October 11, is an American mixed martial artist who competes in the featherweight division for Ultimate Fighting Championship. Development Southern Africa, the journal of the Development Bank of Southern Africa, publishes articles that reflect innovative thinking on key development challenges and policy issues facing South Africa and other southern African countries. Developmentalism is an economic theory which states that the best way for less developed economies to develop is through fostering a strong and varied internal market and imposing high tariffs on imported goods.

The dialogical self is a psychological concept which describes the mind's ability to imagine the different positions of participants in an internal dialogue, in close connection with external dialogue. Dieter Senghaas born August 27, , in Geislingen an der Steige is a German social scientist and peace researcher. A dietitian or dietician is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.

Digital humanities DH is an area of scholarly activity at the intersection of computing or digital technologies and the disciplines of the humanities. Discourse from Latin discursus, "running to and from" denotes written and spoken communications. Discourse analysis DA , or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event.

The Discourse Unit is an international research group that currently has its main base at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury. In social science, disenchantment Entzauberung is the cultural rationalization and devaluation of mysticism apparent in modern society.

The disengagement theory of aging states that "aging is an inevitable, mutual withdrawal or disengagement, resulting in decreased interaction between the aging person and others in the social system he belongs to". The term Disneyfication also Disneyization describes the transformation of a society to resemble the theme parks of The Walt Disney Company.

Dispositional affect, similar to mood, is a personality trait or overall tendency to respond to situations in stable, predictable ways. The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize. The various academic faculties, departments, and institutes of the University of Oxford are organised into four divisions, each with its own Head and elected board.

The Doctor of Social Science degree is a higher qualification offered by select universities, which serves as a doctoral level qualification specifically relating to academic work in the field of social sciences. A doctorate from Latin docere, "to teach" or doctor's degree from Latin doctor, "teacher" or doctoral degree from the ancient formalism licentia docendi is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

Doomsday cult is an expression used to describe groups who believe in apocalypticism and millenarianism, and can refer both to groups that predict disaster, and to those that attempt to bring it about. Dorothea Jacqueline Dorien DeTombe born is a Dutch sociologist and former academic at the Utrecht University and the Delft University of Technology, known for her contributions in the field of methodology for societal complexity.

Double burden is a term used to describe the workload of people who work to earn money, but who are also responsible for significant amounts of unpaid domestic labor. The double hermeneutic is the theory, expounded by sociologist Anthony Giddens, that everyday "lay" concepts and those from the social sciences have a two-way relationship.

Dr Manmohan Singh Scholarships are awards available to Indian students for doctoral study at St John's College at the University of Cambridge and for undergraduate studies at the university. Druga gimnazija Sarajevo is a Sarajevo gymnasium school in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering multidisciplinary and multicultural social science research and criticism about race.

Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University. Duquesne University Press, founded in , is a publisher that is part of Duquesne University, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Dynamical systems theory is an area of mathematics used to describe the behavior of the complex dynamical systems, usually by employing differential equations or difference equations.

E-Science or eScience is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid. E-social science is a more recent development in conjunction with the wider developments in e-science.

Edward Hallett "Ted" Carr 28 June — 3 November was an English historian, diplomat, journalist and international relations theorist, and an opponent of empiricism within historiography. Communitas is a Latin noun commonly referring either to an unstructured community in which people are equal, or to the very spirit of community. A community is a small or large social unit a group of living things that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.

Community practice also known as macro practice is a branch of social work in the United States of America that focuses on larger social systems and social change, and is tied to the historical roots of United States social work. Comparative research is a research methodology in the social sciences that aims to make comparisons across different countries or cultures.

This is a conversion chart showing how the Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress Classification systems organize resources by concept, in part for the purpose of assigning call numbers. Compendium is a computer program and social science tool that facilitates the mapping and management of ideas and arguments. Complete spatial randomness CSR describes a point process whereby point events occur within a given study area in a completely random fashion. Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions.

Compliance gaining is a term used in the social sciences that encompasses the intentional act of altering another's behavior. Computational social science refers to the academic sub-disciplines concerned with computational approaches to the social sciences. Computational sociology is a branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena. Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

Computer-assisted reporting describes the use of computers to gather and analyze the data necessary to write news stories. Cashman in , at a workshop attended by individuals interested in using technology to support people in their work. Conant Hall is one of several graduate student residence halls at Harvard University.

Concordia University commonly referred to as Concordia is a public comprehensive university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada on unceded Indigenous lands. Conflict continuum is a model or concept used by various social science researchers in modelling conflict, usually going from low "irritations" to high "explosiveness" intensity.

Confluenze - Rivista di studi iberomericani is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal established in Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong. American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.

Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge is a book by biologist E. Wilson, in which the author discusses methods that have been used to unite the sciences and might in the future unite them with the humanities. The Constitution of the Italian Republic Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December , with votes in favour and 62 against. Construct validity is "the degree to which a test measures what it claims, or purports, to be measuring.

Contentment is a mental or emotional state of satisfaction maybe drawn from being at ease in one's situation, body and mind. The German education system or continental education system is a higher education model, often contrasted with the Anglo-Saxon education system and the Scandinavian education system.

Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt changes or discontinuities. Cooperation sometimes written as co-operation is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for common, mutual, or some underlying benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.

In social science generally and linguistics specifically, the cooperative principle describes how effective communication in conversation is achieved in common social situations, that is, how listeners and speakers must act cooperatively and mutually accept one another to be understood in a particular way.

In the social sciences, coordinated management of meaning CMM provides understanding of how individuals create, coordinate and manage meanings in their process of communication. As used by copyright theorists, the term copynorm or more frequently copynorms is used to refer to a normalized social standard regarding the ethical issue of duplicating copyrighted material.

The Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy JLPP is a law review published by students at Cornell Law School, First published in July , JLPP publishes articles, commentaries, book reviews, and student notes that explore the intersections of law, government, public policy, and the social sciences, with a focus on current domestic issues and their implications.

Corporate capitalism is a term used in social science and economics to describe a capitalist marketplace characterized by the dominance of hierarchical, bureaucratic corporations. In statistics, many statistical tests calculate correlations between variables and when two variables are found to be correlated, it is tempting to assume that this shows that one variable causes the other. Cosumnes River College is a two-year community college located on the southern edge of Sacramento in Sacramento County, California.

A couple interview or joint couple interview, or more broadly conjoint interview, joint interview or dyadic interview is a method of qualitative research used in the social sciences, where two spouses are interviewed together. Coursera is an online learning platform founded by Stanford professors Andrew Ng and Daphne Koller that offers courses, specializations, and degrees. Craig Bruce Reucassel born 1 January is an Australian television and radio comedian. Crime analysis is a law enforcement function that involves systematic analysis for identifying and analyzing patterns and trends in crime and disorder.

Laboratoire CRISES or Centre de recherches interdisciplinaires en sciences humaines et sociales is a French research centre in humanities and social sciences, founded in Montpellier, France, in January Critical psychology is a perspective on psychology that draws extensively on critical theory.

Critical race theory CRT is a theoretical framework in the social sciences that uses critical theory to examine society and culture as they relate to categorizations of race, law, and power. Critical realism, a philosophical approach associated with Roy Bhaskar — , combines a general philosophy of science transcendental realism with a philosophy of social science critical naturalism to describe an interface between the natural and social worlds.

Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. Criticism of science addresses and refines problems within science in order to improve science as a whole and its role in society.

Cross-Cultural Research formerly Behavior Science Research is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Social Sciences. Cross-cultural studies, sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology and sister sciences sociology, psychology, economics, political science that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture.

Cross-plot is synonym for scatter plots used primarily in the Earth Sciences and Social Sciences to describe a specialized chart that compares multiple measurements made at a single time or location along two or more axes.

In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities culture. A cultural artifact, or cultural artefact see American and British English spelling differences , is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.

A cultural critic is a critic of a given culture, usually as a whole and typically on a radical basis. Cultural framework is a term used in social science to explain traditions, value systems, myths and symbols that are common in a given society. In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm; the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.

Since the beginning of her career in the early s, American singer and songwriter Madonna has had a social-cultural impact on the world through her recordings, attitude, clothing and lifestyle. The cultural turn is a movement beginning in the early s among scholars in the humanities and social sciences to make culture the focus of contemporary debates; it also describes a shift in emphasis toward meaning and away from a positivist epistemology.

The culture of Paris,in France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups. The culture of Sussex refers to the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with Sussex and its people. The culture of the People's Republic of China is a rich and varied blend of traditional Chinese culture with communist and other international modern and post-modern influences.

Culturology or science of culture is a branch of social sciences concerned with the scientific understanding, description, analysis, and prediction of cultures as a whole. Customer relationship management CRM is an approach to manage a company's interaction with current and potential customers.

The Czech Academy of Sciences abbr. The Academy is the leading non-university public research institution in the Czech Republic. Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences SVU is a nonprofit, nonpolitical, cultural organization, dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge, the free dissemination of ideas, and the fostering of contacts among people.

Boys Senior Secondary School is a senior secondary high school located in Gopalapuram, a central part of Chennai, India. Daeduk College is a private technical college in the Yuseong-gu district of Daejeon, a major city of South Korea. Dafna Lemish is an Israeli media researcher in the fields of children, youth and leisure culture; as well as construction of gender identity in the media. Damond L. Daniel E. Daniel Nettle born is a British behavioural researcher, biologist and social scientist.

Daniel Yankelovich December 29, — September 22, was a public opinion analyst and social scientist. Darko Bratina 30 March — 23 September was an Italian sociologist, film theorist and politician of Slovene ethnicity. Darmanto Jatman 16 August — 13 January Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic fashion, which then enables one to answer relevant questions and evaluate outcomes.

Data science is an interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from data in various forms, both structured and unstructured, similar to data mining. David Verge Fleischer is an American born Brazilian social scientist and professor. David Glenn Hays November 17, — July 26, was a linguist, computer scientist and social scientist best known for his early work in machine translation and computational linguistics.

David Paul Berenberg March 17, — March 7, was an American socialist teacher, editor, and writer. In law and government, de facto or;, "in fact" describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws. A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces for example, by early entrance to the market.

Jeremiah Joseph Duggan 10 November — 27 March was a British student in Paris who died during a visit to Wiesbaden, Germany, after being struck by several cars on a dual carriageway. Debi Prasanna Pattanayak born 14 March is an Indian professor, linguist, social scientist and author. The Decade of the Mind Project is an international initiative to advance scientific understanding of how the mind and complex behaviors are related to the activity of human brains. Dedoose is a web application for mixed methods research developed by academics from UCLA, with support from the William T.

Grant Foundation, and is the successor to EthnoNotes. Demographic gravitation is a concept of "social physics", introduced by Princeton University astrophysicist John Quincy Stewart in Descriptive knowledge, also declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions.

Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns. Design Studies is an academic discipline that pursues a critical understanding of design and its effects through analytical and practical modes of inquiry.

Desmond Green born October 11, is an American mixed martial artist who competes in the featherweight division for Ultimate Fighting Championship. Development Southern Africa, the journal of the Development Bank of Southern Africa, publishes articles that reflect innovative thinking on key development challenges and policy issues facing South Africa and other southern African countries.

Developmentalism is an economic theory which states that the best way for less developed economies to develop is through fostering a strong and varied internal market and imposing high tariffs on imported goods. The dialogical self is a psychological concept which describes the mind's ability to imagine the different positions of participants in an internal dialogue, in close connection with external dialogue.

Dieter Senghaas born August 27, , in Geislingen an der Steige is a German social scientist and peace researcher. A dietitian or dietician is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet. Digital humanities DH is an area of scholarly activity at the intersection of computing or digital technologies and the disciplines of the humanities.

Discourse from Latin discursus, "running to and from" denotes written and spoken communications. Discourse analysis DA , or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event. The Discourse Unit is an international research group that currently has its main base at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom.

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury. In social science, disenchantment Entzauberung is the cultural rationalization and devaluation of mysticism apparent in modern society.

The disengagement theory of aging states that "aging is an inevitable, mutual withdrawal or disengagement, resulting in decreased interaction between the aging person and others in the social system he belongs to". The term Disneyfication also Disneyization describes the transformation of a society to resemble the theme parks of The Walt Disney Company.

Dispositional affect, similar to mood, is a personality trait or overall tendency to respond to situations in stable, predictable ways. The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize. The various academic faculties, departments, and institutes of the University of Oxford are organised into four divisions, each with its own Head and elected board.

The Doctor of Social Science degree is a higher qualification offered by select universities, which serves as a doctoral level qualification specifically relating to academic work in the field of social sciences. A doctorate from Latin docere, "to teach" or doctor's degree from Latin doctor, "teacher" or doctoral degree from the ancient formalism licentia docendi is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

Doomsday cult is an expression used to describe groups who believe in apocalypticism and millenarianism, and can refer both to groups that predict disaster, and to those that attempt to bring it about. Dorothea Jacqueline Dorien DeTombe born is a Dutch sociologist and former academic at the Utrecht University and the Delft University of Technology, known for her contributions in the field of methodology for societal complexity.

Double burden is a term used to describe the workload of people who work to earn money, but who are also responsible for significant amounts of unpaid domestic labor. The double hermeneutic is the theory, expounded by sociologist Anthony Giddens, that everyday "lay" concepts and those from the social sciences have a two-way relationship.

Dr Manmohan Singh Scholarships are awards available to Indian students for doctoral study at St John's College at the University of Cambridge and for undergraduate studies at the university. Druga gimnazija Sarajevo is a Sarajevo gymnasium school in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering multidisciplinary and multicultural social science research and criticism about race.

Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University. Duquesne University Press, founded in , is a publisher that is part of Duquesne University, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Dynamical systems theory is an area of mathematics used to describe the behavior of the complex dynamical systems, usually by employing differential equations or difference equations.

E-Science or eScience is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid. E-social science is a more recent development in conjunction with the wider developments in e-science.

Edward Hallett "Ted" Carr 28 June — 3 November was an English historian, diplomat, journalist and international relations theorist, and an opponent of empiricism within historiography. Eamon Michael Kelly - was the president of Tulane University from to Earth system governance is a recently developed paradigm that builds on earlier notions of environmental policy and nature conservation, but puts these into the broader context of human-induced transformations of the entire earth system.

Earth system science ESS is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. East Asian studies is a distinct multidisciplinary field of scholarly enquiry and education that promotes a broad humanistic understanding of East Asia past and present.

Eco-socialism, green socialism or socialist ecology is an ideology merging aspects of socialism with that of green politics, ecology and alter-globalization or anti-globalization. The Economic and Political Weekly is a weekly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all social sciences, and is published by the Sameeksha Trust. In finance, mainly for financial services firms, economic capital is the amount of risk capital, assessed on a realistic basis, which a firm requires to cover the risks that it is running or collecting as a going concern, such as market risk, credit risk, legal risk, and operational risk.

The social science of economics makes extensive use of graphs to better illustrate the economic principles and trends it is attempting to explain. Economic methodology is the study of methods, especially the scientific method, in relation to economics, including principles underlying economic reasoning.

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Diamond, Jr. Econophysics is an interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics, usually those including uncertainty or stochastic processes and nonlinear dynamics.

The term edge of chaos is used to denote a transition space between order and disorder that is hypothesized to exist within a wide variety of systems. Edinburgh College is a further and higher education institution with campuses in Edinburgh and Midlothian, Scotland.

Editorial URSS is a Russian scientific literature publishing house textbooks, monographs, journals, proceedings of Russian institutes and universities, etc. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva born February 6, in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania is an American political sociologist and professor of sociology at Duke University.

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Education in state institutions is free at the initial, primary, secondary and tertiary levels and in the undergraduate university level not for graduate programs. Education in China is a state-run system of public education run by the Ministry of Education.

Education in Moldova is currently the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Research. Mongolia's education system has undergone major changes in the 20th century. The educational system in Taiwan is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education.

Education in the Netherlands is characterized by division: education is oriented toward the needs and background of the pupil. Education is divided over schools for different age groups, some of which are divided in streams for different educational levels. Schools are furthermore divided in public, special religious , and general-special neutral schools, although there are also a few private schools. The Dutch grading scale runs from 1 very poor to 10 outstanding.

Education in the Philippines is provided by public and private schools, colleges, universities, and technical and vocational institutions. Education in the Soviet Union was organized in a highly centralized government-run system. Education in Zimbabwe is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education for primary and secondary education and the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education, Science and Technology Development for higher education. Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning.

Edward Kofler November 16, — April 22, was a mathematician who made important contributions to game theory and fuzzy logic by working out the theory of linear partial information. In statistics, an effect size is a quantitative measure of the magnitude of a phenomenon.

Egalitarian dialogue is a dialogue in which contributions are considered according to the validity of their reasoning, instead of according to the status or position of power of those who make them. Einar Thorsrud 30 April — 29 May was a Norwegian psychologist, researcher and professor at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim and University of Oslo, who is known for his work in the field of organizational development OD , particularly in the development of theory around participative work design structures.

ELAN is computer software, a professional tool to manually and semi-automatically annotate and transcribe audio or video recordings. Elise L. Andaya is a cultural anthropologist who is currently employed as an Associate Professor of Anthropology by the University of Albany which is the state university of New York. Ellen Ernst Kossek, a social scientist, is an American academic who is known for research on work, family, and personal life.

Ellen Markman is Lewis M. Terman Professor of Psychology at Stanford University. Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information. Emerald Publishing Limited is a scholarly publisher of academic journals and books in the fields of management, business, education, library studies, health care, and engineering.

In philosophy, emergentism is the belief in emergence, particularly as it involves consciousness and the philosophy of mind, and as it contrasts or not with reductionism. In anthropology, folkloristics, and the social and behavioral sciences, emic and etic refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained: emic, from within the social group from the perspective of the subject and etic, from outside from the perspective of the observer.

Emma Boona born 17 February is a Ugandan teacher, public administrator and politician. Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure. Empirical legal studies ELS is an approach to the study of law, legal procedure, and legal theory through the use of empirical research.

In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. The Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences is a specialized fifteen-volume Encyclopedia first published in and last published in Energy policy is the manner in which a given entity often governmental has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production, distribution and consumption. Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles to the professional practice of engineering.

Engineering management is the application of the practice of management to the practice of engineering. English studies usually called simply English is an academic discipline taught in primary, secondary, and post-secondary education in English-speaking countries; it is not to be confused with English taught as a foreign language, which is a distinct discipline.

Enid Mumford 6 March — 7 April was a British social scientist, computer scientist and Professor Emerita of Manchester University and a Visiting Fellow at Manchester Business School, largely known for her work on human factors and socio-technical systems. Bishop Enrique San Pedro, S. Environmental determinism also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories.

Environmental journalism is the collection, verification, production, distribution and exhibition of information regarding current events, trends, issues and people that are associated with the non-human world with which humans necessarily interact. Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings. Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment.

Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution who, when, and where and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. The Erasmus Prize is an annual prize awarded by the board of the Praemium Erasmianum Foundation to individuals or institutions that have made exceptional contributions to culture, society, or social science in Europe and the rest of the world. Eric Henry Monkkonen August 17, in Kansas City, Missouri — May 30, in Culver City, California was an American urban and social science historian who conducted authoritative studies on the history of crime as well as urban development.

Eric Robert Wolf February 1, — March 6, was an anthropologist, best known for his studies of peasants, Latin America, and his advocacy of Marxist perspectives within anthropology. Erik Rinde 17 March — 28 May was a Norwegian jurist who became a pioneer of social sciences in Norway. Erlendur Haraldsson born is a professor emeritus of psychology on the faculty of social science at the University of Iceland.

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel 16 February — 9 August was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista.

Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny. Erving Goffman 11 June — 19 November was a Canadian-American sociologist and writer, considered by some "the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth century".

Erwin J. Haeberle born 30 March is a German social scientist and sexologist. Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism is a peer-reviewed academic journal and the official journal of the American Humanist Association. The Estonian Academy of Arts Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA is the only public university in Estonia providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation-restoration.

ETH Library is the largest public scientific and technical library in Switzerland. Ethics in technology is a sub-field of ethics addressing the ethical questions specific to the Technology Age. Ethnic and Racial Studies is a peer-reviewed social science academic journal that publishes scholarly articles and book reviews on anthropology, cultural studies, ethnicity and race, and sociology. Ethnic identity development or ethnic-racial identity ERI development includes the identity formation in an individual's self-categorization in, and psychological attachment to, an ethnic group s.

Within the field of anthropology and other social sciences, ethnography is a form of research that relies on a range of sources of data, but usually tends to rely mainly on participant observation. Ethnoscience has been defined as an attempt "to reconstitute what serves as science for others, their practices of looking after themselves and their bodies, their botanical knowledge, but also their forms of classification, of making connections, etc.

Ethnozoology is the study of the past and present interrelationships between human cultures and the animals in their environment. Etienne Vermeersch born May 2, in Sint-Michiels nowadays part of Bruges is a Belgian moral philosopher, skeptic, opinion maker and debater. The European Academy of Sciences and Arts Academia Scientiarum et Artium Europaea is a learned society of around 1, top scientists and artists who approach the questions facing Europe and the globe in various colloquia and publications.

The European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy EAEPE is a pluralist forum of social scientists that brings together institutional and evolutionary economists broadly defined. The European Association of Libraries and Information Services on Addictions ELISAD — previously called, until end of , European Association of Libraries and Information Services on Alcohol and other Drugs — was a European non-governmental and non-profit making social network of libraries, documentation centres and information services situated in Europe and specialised in alcohol, drugs, tobacco and all other behavioural addictions.

The European Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering contemporary issues in Europe. European studies is a field of study offered by many academic colleges and universities that focuses on current developments in European integration. The European University Institute EUI in Florence, Italy, is an international postgraduate and post-doctoral teaching and research institute established by European Union member states to contribute to cultural and scientific development in the social sciences, in a European perspective.

Europeanisation or Europeanization, see spelling differences refers to a number of related phenomena and patterns of change. Evaluation Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Social Sciences. Everett Carll Ladd, Jr. September 24, December 8, was an American political scientist based at the University of Connecticut. Everett M. Rogers March 6, — October 21, was an eminent American communication theorist and sociologist, who originated the diffusion of innovations theory and introduced the term early adopter.

An evolutionarily stable strategy ESS is a strategy which, if adopted by a population in a given environment, cannot be invaded by any alternative strategy that is initially rare. Evolutionary anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates.

Evolutionary economics is part of mainstream economics as well as a heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology. Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. Existential migration is a term coined by Greg Madison in Existential Analysis, the journal of the Society for Existential Analysis.

An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Power and dominance-submission are two key dimensions of relationships, especially close relationships in which parties rely on one another to achieve their goals and as such it is important to be able to identify indicators of dominance.

The fact—value distinction is the distinction between things that can be known to be true and things that are the personal preferences of individuals. The University of Colombo currently has seven faculties with 41 academic departments and two interdependent schools with five academic departments. The institute conducts social research both in Norway and internationally.

Fardad Fateri is an American business and higher education executive, author, public speaker, philanthropist, and professor. Farooq Adamu Kperogi born , is a Nigerian academic, media scholar, public speaker and newspaper columnist. The fathers' rights movement is a movement whose members are primarily interested in issues related to family law, including child custody and child support that affect fathers and their children.

Fatos Tarifa born is a social scientist and a former diplomat from Albania. The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency of the United States federal courts. Federal University Oye Ekiti is a government-owned and -operated Nigerian university. Federico A. Cordero August 18, — October 9, was a guitarist of classical music. In ethology and social science, female bonding is the formation of a close personal relationship and patterns of friendship, attachment, and cooperation in females.

Orser and Catherine J. Feminist empiricism is a perspective within feminist research that combines the objectives and observations of feminism with the research methods and empiricism. Fergusson College FC is an autonomous public educational institution offering courses in the streams of Arts and Science in the city of Pune.

Fernando Henrique Cardoso born June 18, , also known by his initials FHC, is a Brazilian sociologist, professor and politician who served as the 34th President of Brazil from January 1, to January 1, Field Methods is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Social Sciences. The Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters is a Finnish academy for natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. Flaming is a hostile and insulting interaction between persons over the Internet, often involving the use of profanity.

Florian Witold Znaniecki 15 January — 23 March was a Polish philosopher and sociologist who taught and wrote in Poland and in the United States. Floyd Henry Allport August 22, — October 15, was an American psychologist who is often considered "the father of experimental social psychology", having played a key role in the creation of social psychology as a legitimate field of behavioral science. A focus group is a small, but demographically diverse group of people and whose reactions are studied especially in market research or political analysis in guided or open discussions about a new product or something else to determine the reactions that can be expected from a larger population.

The Fordham University Press is a publishing house, a division of Fordham University, that publishes primarily in the humanities and the social sciences. Forgiveness is the intentional and voluntary process by which a victim undergoes a change in feelings and attitude regarding an offense, lets go of negative emotions such as vengefulness, forswears recompense from or punishment of the offender, however legally or morally justified it might be, and with an increased ability to wish the offender well.

Formal sciences are formal language disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, robotics, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, and theoretical linguistics. Foundation Mattei Dogan is located in Paris, France, and is devoted exclusively to the social sciences.

The Foundation University for Health Sciences is a private educational and health care university founded in Statistics is the theory and application of mathematics to the scientific method including hypothesis generation, experimental design, sampling, data collection, data summarization, estimation, prediction and inference from those results to the population from which the experimental sample was drawn.

Roosevelt on Monday, January 6, Frame analysis also called framing analysis is a multi-disciplinary social science research method used to analyze how people understand situations and activities. In the social sciences, framing comprises a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how individuals, groups, and societies, organize, perceive, and communicate about reality.

French—Iranian relations are the international relations between France and Iran. Dr Frances Pinter born 13 June is the founder and executive director of Knowledge Unlatched, a not-for-profit company creating a global library consortium enabling sustainable open access academic book publishing.

Franco Archibugi Rome, Italy 18 September is an Italian scholar in political, economic and social sciences, university professor in economic policy and spatial planning. Franklin Benjamin Sanborn December 15, — February 24, was an American journalist, author, and reformer. Fred Stephen Roberts born June 19, from Roberts' web site, retrieved Fredric Jameson born April 14, is an American literary critic and Marxist political theorist.

French immersion is a form of bilingual education in which a child who does not speak French as his or her first language receives instruction in school in French. Friedensau Adventist University in German "Theologische Hochschule Friedensau" is a part of the Seventh-day Adventist education system, the world's second largest Christian school system.

Friedhelm Gehrmann born 12 June in Dortmund is a German scientist in the field of economics and social sciences. Friedrich Engels. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism. Friedrich Heckmann born March 6, is the director of the research institute European forum for migration studies efms and emeritus professor of Sociology at the School of Social and Economic Sciences at the University of Bamberg.

Friedrich Pollock 22 May — 16 December was a German social scientist and philosopher. In sociology, a friend of a friend is a human contact that exists because of a mutual friend. Fairman about freedom of speech, the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, censorship, and use of the word fuck in society.

Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific research, in the areas of both "hard" science and technology and social science. Futures studies also called futurology is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. Futurists or futurologists are scientists and social scientists whose specialty is futurology or the attempt to systematically explore predictions and possibilities about the future and how they can emerge from the present, whether that of human society in particular or of life on Earth in general.

A fuzzy cognitive map is a cognitive map within which the relations between the elements e. Gabriel A. Almond January 12, — December 25, was a political scientist from the United States best known for his pioneering work on comparative politics, political development, and political culture. Gaia philosophy named after Gaia, Greek goddess of the Earth is a broadly inclusive term for related concepts that living organisms on a planet will affect the nature of their environment in order to make the environment more suitable for life.

Gail Jefferson 22 April — 21 February was, along with Harvey Sacks and Emanuel Schegloff, one of the founders of the area of research known as conversation analysis CA. Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit.

Game studies, or ludology, is the study of games, the act of playing them, and the players and cultures surrounding them. Gathering Blue is a young adult-social science novel, written by Lois Lowry and released in the year In mathematics, a Gaussian function, often simply referred to as a Gaussian, is a function of the form: for arbitrary real constants, and.

Gavin Kitching B. Phil is a British author and professor of social sciences and international relations formerly head of School Politics and International Relations at the University of New South Wales, where he has taught since Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Gender sensitization precides over gender sensitivity which refers to the modification of behavior by raising awareness of gender equality concerns.

Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis. Gene V Glass born June 19, is an American statistician and researcher working in educational psychology and the social sciences. Generalized game theory is an extension of game theory incorporating social theory concepts such as norm, value, belief, role, social relationship, and institution.

The generalized other is a concept introduced by George Herbert Mead into the social sciences, and used especially in the field of symbolic interactionism. A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively. Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. Georg Simmel 1 March — 28 September was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.

George Christopher Archibald 30 December — 22 February , briefly 2nd Baron Archibald in , also known as Chris Archibald, was a British economist, a researcher and professor. Naval War College. George Malcolm Stratton September 26, — October 8, was a psychologist who pioneered the study of perception in vision by wearing special glasses which inverted images up and down and left and right.

George W. Georges Goyau 31 March — 25 October was a French historian and essayist specializing in religious history. Georges Menahem is a French sociologist and economist whose work employs methods drawn from economics, sociology and statistics.

Gerald L. Gerhard Weisser 9 February - 25 October was a social scientist, university teacher, Social Democrat and expert policy advisor. Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing. The Gerstein Science Information Centre is the University of Toronto's flagship library supporting the sciences and health sciences.

Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Giambattista Vico B. Giovan Battista Vico, 23 June — 23 January was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment.

Gian Vittorio Baldi 30 October - 23 March was an Italian film producer, director and screenwriter. Gina Neff is a media and communication scholar whose work centers on the social and organizational impact of new communication technologies.

Giorgi George V. The Giornale degli economisti e Annali di economia, established in Padua in , is an Italian academic journal of economics. The Glasgow University Dialectic Society, re-instituted in , is a student society at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, committed to the promotion of debating, logic, ethics and literary discussion at the university. Glastonbury High School is a public, co-educational high school located in Glastonbury, Connecticut.

Glimpse is an interdisciplinary journal that examines the functions, processes, and effects of vision and its implications for being, knowing, and constructing our world s. Global radiology, a subspecialty of diagnostic radiology, comprises the study and practice of improving access to radiology resources in poor and developing countries, and addressing global health inequities through the application of radiology.

The global warming controversy concerns the public debate over whether global warming is occurring, how much has occurred in modern times, what has caused it, what its effects will be, whether any action should be taken to curb it, and if so what that action should be. Gloria Criscione Pineda, known artistically as "Gloria del Paraguay" is a Paraguayan soprano, recognized for her versatile voice.

This is a glossary of terms that are or have been considered areas of study in mathematics. This glossary of education-related terms is based on how they commonly are used in Wikipedia articles. Godfrey Baldacchino born 25 April is a Maltese and Canadian social scientist.

Goldsmiths, University of London, is a public research university in London, England, specialising in the arts, design, humanities, and social sciences. Andrew Gordon Speedie Pask 28 June — 29 March was an English author, inventor, educational theorist, cybernetician and psychologist who made significant contributions to cybernetics, instructional psychology, experimental epistemology and educational technology. A graduate school sometimes shortened as grad school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees i.

The, or GSAPS, is an independent graduate school focusing on social sciences and international relations. Graduate unemployment, or educated unemployment, is unemployment among people with an academic degree. In mathematics, the concept of graph dynamical systems can be used to capture a wide range of processes taking place on graphs or networks. In sociology of science, the graphism thesis is a proposition of Bruno Latour that graphs are important in science.

Gratification is the pleasurable emotional reaction of happiness in response to a fulfillment of a desire or goal. Gravity models are used in various social sciences to predict and describe certain behaviors that mimic gravitational interaction as described in Isaac Newton's law of gravity. Greg D. Clausen born October 8, is a Minnesota politician and member of the Minnesota Senate.

Gregory Bateson 9 May — 4 July was an English anthropologist, social scientist, linguist, visual anthropologist, semiotician, and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. Grounded theory GT is a systematic methodology in the social sciences involving the construction of theory through methodic gathering and analysis of data. Group analysis or group analytic psychotherapy is a method of group psychotherapy originated by S.

Foulkes in the s. The Gulf Research Center GRC is a privately funded, non-partisan think tank, education provider and consultancy specializing in the Persian Gulf region. The Gunijan Trust is an initiative for presenting Bangladesh personalities who inspire people through their writings, words, scientific and artistic works and other creative pursuits for peace, humanity and social justice.

Gymnasium German plural: Gymnasien , in the German education system, is the most advanced of the three types of German secondary schools, the others being Realschule and Hauptschule. Gymnasium strongly emphasizes academic learning, comparable to the British grammar school system or with prep schools in the United States. A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.

Harold Gordon Skilling February 12, — March 2, was a Canadian political scientist, known for his expertise on the history of Czechoslovakia and support for the Charter 77 dissident movement. Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries. Hans-Ulrich Wehler September 11, — July 5, was a German historian known for his role in promoting social history through the "Bielefeld School", and for his critical studies of 19th-century Germany.

Harari College Worldwide is an American, virtual, tuition-free college that offered the American Advanced Placement International Diploma and a diploma in the Humanities and Social Sciences for high school students. Hard science and soft science are colloquial terms used to compare scientific fields on the basis of perceived methodological rigor, exactitude, and objectivity.

Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific accuracy. Harold J. Noah born is an American educator, whose research and writing have focused on comparative education and economics of education.

Harry Anastasiou born is a British-born Cypriot-American social and political scientist who has engaged in peace-building initiatives in Cyprus, Greece, Turkey, the Middle East and the European Union. Harry Ott born Chemnitz 15 October died Prieros 24 June was a German diplomat who became a politician towards the end of his professional career.

Harvey Luskin Molotch born January 3, is an American sociologist known for studies that have reconceptualized power relations in interaction, the mass media, and the city. Haverford College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in Haverford, Pennsylvania. Hazel Kyrk — was an American economist and pioneer of consumer economics.

Health: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine is a bimonthly peer-reviewed healthcare journal that covers research in the fields of health and the social sciences. Health informatics also called health care informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, clinical informatics, or biomedical informatics is information engineering applied to the field of health care, essentially the management and use of patient healthcare information.

Health services research HSR , also known as health systems research or health policy and systems research HPSR , is a multidisciplinary scientific field that examines how people get access to health care practitioners and health care services, how much care costs, and what happens to patients as a result of this care.

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Vai dar treta? D'Ale e Felipe Melo se enfrentaram 6 vezes sem grandes problemas. Por que Ramires demora a estrear e ainda nem treinou com bola no Palmeiras. Joelmir Beting O mago do jornalismo brasileiro. Quatro dias depois, em 29 de novembro de , Joelmir morreu no mesmo hospital paulistano. Estava curado. Em ancorou o Jornal da Band ao lado de Ricardo Boechat. Foi recriminado por seu ato e, dias depois, decidiu rumar para outra vertente do jornalismo.

Em assumiu o cargo de editor de Economia da Folha de S. Em foi para o Estado de S. Beting, como todos os que viram a obra-prima, ficou encantado. Nunca falei com meu pai a respeito depois que o Palmeiras foi rebaixado. Sei que ele soube. Ou imaginou. Irrigado e arejado como poucos dos muitos que o conhecem e o reconhecem.

Meu pai. O melhor pai que um jornalista pode ser. O melhor jornalista que um filho pode ter como pai. Preciso dizer algo mais para o melhor Babbo do mundo que virou o melhor Nonno do Universo? Normalmente ele sabia tudo. Apenas como um humano super. Por isso sempre acreditei no meu pai e no time dele. O nosso. Devem ser apenas pensadas. Quem sente o que fala nem precisa dizer.

Mas hoje eu preciso agradecer pelos meus 46 anos. Pelos 75 dele.

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