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Sources classification and composition of msw betting

Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Although a potentially significant and preventable source of environmental pollution, mercury in municipal solid waste MSW has not received adequate attention in China.

Discarded mercury-containing products, if not recycled, ultimately release mercury to air, soil, and groundwater, even after being properly collected and disposed of in MSW management facilities. This review presents an overview on mercury in MSW and describes the emissions associated with landfilling, incineration, and composting in China.

Besides end-of-pipe technologies for controlling mercury emissions from MSW management, strategies for controlling mercury in MSW are also discussed, focusing on mercury source reduction and recycling. Batteries and fluorescent lamps contribute to approximately three-quarters of mercury in MSW, and are expected to remain as significant sources of mercury in the near future.

Reducing or eliminating the mercury contents in household products, particularly batteries and fluorescent lamps, should be the top priority in controlling mercury in MSW, while it is also important to set mercury contents in consumer products at acceptable and achievable levels based on a life-cycle approach. Meanwhile, cost-effective recycling programs should be developed targeting products containing elemental mercury, such as medical thermometers and sphygmomanometers, and waste products with high mercury contents e.

Additional information on anthropogenic mercury emissions from different source categories in the world and in China, overview of mercury pollution in China, MSW generation and disposal in China, incineration fly ash management, mercury contents and mercury emissions from ILBs and fluorescent lamps over their lifetimes, production of lighting products in China, and recycling of fluorescent lamps. The American Chemical Society holds a copyright ownership interest in any copyrightable Supporting Information.

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For permission to reproduce, republish and redistribute this material, requesters must process their own requests via the RightsLink permission system. View Author Information. Cite this: Environ. Article Views Altmetric -. Citations Supporting Information. Cited By. This article is cited by 83 publications. A meta-analysis of heavy metals pollution in farmland and urban soils in China over the past 20 years.

Journal of Environmental Sciences , , Temporal trends of urinary mercury in Chinese people from s to s: A review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety , , Denitrification devices in urban boilers change mercury isotope fractionation signatures of coal combustion products. Environmental Pollution , , Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical , , Wood , Patrick G.

Hartley , Ylias M. Sabri , Suresh K. Mercury-bearing wastes: Sources, policies and treatment technologies for mercury recovery and safe disposal. Journal of Environmental Management , , Mercury transport and fate in municipal solid waste landfills and its implications. Biogeochemistry , 1 , Temporal variation of vegetation at two operating landfills and its implications for landfill phytoremediation.

Environmental Technology , 41 5 , Journal of Cleaner Production , , Evaluation of the impact of soil contamination with mercury and application of soil amendments on the yield and chemical composition of Avena sativa L..

Combustion Emissions. Occurrence, speciation and fate of mercury in the sewage sludge of China. Automationssysteme mit zentralem Systemintegrator. Municipal solid waste MSW incineration fly ash as an important source of heavy metal pollution in China. A sulfur-resistant CuS-modified active coke for mercury removal from municipal solid waste incineration flue gas. Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 26 24 , Development and optimization of an immunoassay for the detection of Hg II in lake water.

Mercury in Municipal Sewage and Sewage Sludge. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology , 5 , Minerals , 9 4 , Structural defects in 2D MoS2 nanosheets and their roles in the adsorption of airborne elemental mercury.

Journal of Hazardous Materials , , Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology , 2 , Plastics to Energy. The growing importance of waste-to-energy WTE incineration in China's anthropogenic mercury emissions: Emission inventories and reduction strategies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , 97 , Spatial distribution characteristics of mercury in the soils and native earthworms Bimastos parvus of the leachate-contaminated zone around a traditional landfill.

Science of The Total Environment , , Using raw and sulfur-impregnated activated carbon as active cap for leaching inhibition of mercury and methylmercury from contaminated sediment. Ptacek , David W. Blowes , W. Douglas Gould. Control of mercury and methylmercury in contaminated sediments using biochars: A long-term microcosm study.

Applied Geochemistry , 92 , Water Science and Technology , 77 5 , Rumayor , K. Svoboda , J. Mitigation of gaseous mercury emissions from waste-to-energy facilities: Homogeneous and heterogeneous Hg-oxidation pathways in presence of fly ashes. Spent alkaline battery-derived manganese oxides as efficient oxygen electrocatalysts for Zn—air batteries.

Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers , 5 9 , Comparison of mercury and methylmercury bioaccumulation in earthworms Bimastus parvus native to landfill-leachate-contaminated forest soil. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences , 43 7 , Indices of soil contamination by heavy metals — methodology of calculation for pollution assessment minireview.

Exchange pattern of gaseous elemental mercury in landfill: mercury deposition under vegetation coverage and interactive effects of multiple meteorological conditions. Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 24 34 , China, from where the COVID infection started, the government has recorded the relevant data on this issue. According to the 11 March press releases of the State Council's joint prevention and control mechanism in China, the amount of MSW in large and medium sized cities was reduced by The proportion of noninfectious waste, which is more than Among many unprecedented impacts of the current pandemic, municipal waste management practices are expected to gain more concerns as time passes by Smart Waste Report European Union, WHO has suggested that the waste treatment and disposal procedures in healthcare facilities should consider controlled conditions of thermal treatment or use of traditional biocidal agents that are effective in destroying coronavirus Kampf et al.

However MSW management outside the healthcare facility needs to be addressed, considering factors such as virus resistance, differences in waste management systems and the climatic conditions in each of the affected region Mol and Caldas, Otherwise we may risk further spread of the coronavirus mainly in developing countries due to poor waste handling conditions associated with inappropriate use of personal protective equipment and other unfavorable conditions Mol and Caldas, Klemes et al.

The study focuses on plastic waste management and provides some insights on MSW handling. Study conducted by Nghiem et al. The work underlines the potential risk of disease transmission through the non-hazardous waste from healthcare facilities Nghiem et al. Zambrano-Monserrate et al. Saadat et al. Solid waste management related studies are scattered across different disciplines e.

As a result, there is a need for detailed study which evaluates different aspects of MSW management during pandemics and provides a backdrop for the further research on this topic. The present study reviews MSW management practices in few of the developed as well as developing countries during COVID pandemic, which is considered as a global natural experiment Thompson, The work highlights potential risks of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in these practices and also presents a few risk-mitigating approaches to MSW management such as decentralized waste management and its integration with existing system.

The study also contributes to the existing literature by evaluating the governments' responses in developed and developing countries to the increased burden on MSW management systems due to pandemic. The remainder of this paper is structured as follows. The ramifications of this pandemic on existing MSW management systems are discussed in Section 4.

Our analysis suggests that there is scope for improving the entire MSW management lifecycle, from waste collection to disposal. We highlight these opportunities for improvement in Section 5. Finally, in Section 6 we present the conclusions and scope for future work of our study.

For instance, food producers in the United States suffered due to the closure of schools, restaurants, and other institutions that normally purchased large food quantities. A significant amount of food waste was generated during initial lockdown period Waste, n. These guidelines address food waste management at households, institutions and business levels US EPA, In India, countrywide lockdown coincided with the country's peak harvesting time of a variety of seasonal crops.

Summer vegetables and fruits were ripe and ready to pick; wheat, paddy and barley crops were also ready for harvest. However, due to the sudden lockdown in the country, most of the produce was wasted FAO, In addition to announcing economic stimulus plan, the government of India also undertook measures to counter wastage of perishable products. Food inspectors were involved to ensure disbursement of food items to restaurants, grocery establishments, and the affected people. Importantly, technological interventions such as food delivery applications enabled the government to reach the localized and remote individuals ensuring efficient food management and reduce the food wastage FAO, The volume of waste and recyclables generated from the residences during COVID outbreak has increased.

Because residential waste and recyclable volumes spiked higher, some local governments temporarily suspended their curbside recycling collection programs to ensure that all of the trash was collected and managed efficiently SWANA, While the volume of curbside mixed waste has increased, return levels in waste deposit systems have temporarily fallen due to limited mobility and fear of contagion among the residents Kahlert and Bening, Furthermore, due to lockdowns, the industrial activity also declined substantially across countries United Nations Industrial Development Organization, This decline in industrial production has significantly reduced the supply of high-value material from post-industrial waste Kahlert and Bening, Current coronavirus pandemic is posing challenges to municipal waste management practices and procedures such as safety and health measures for employees, waste treatment requirements, general procedures due to coronavirus for waste sector ACRPlus, Governments have identified the importance of MSW management during the disease outbreak and have undertaken various measures to tackle the situation.

For instance, to avoid burden on municipal waste system during this pandemic, citizens in Austria are asked to reduce waste generation and segregate waste as best as possible. During the initial stage of the outbreak, guidelines were articulated for the citizens to effectively carry out waste reduction and segregation, without compromising on the individuals' health and safety Land Oberosterreich, Tokyo has reported an increase in the household combustible waste by 3.

The British government has published COVID regulatory position statements for local authorities and waste collectors. European Commission has formulated a guidance document for waste management in the context of coronavirus crisis. The document emphasizes on an overall continuity of proper MSW management services, including separate collection and recycling in accordance with EU law. It further specifies that if the services were to be reduced, the continuity and sufficient frequency of collection of residual and biodegradable waste has to be ensured for the final disposal European Commission, Developing countries like India, Vietnam, and Malaysia have published guidelines for the handling of medical waste and waste generated in infected households.

However, little attention has been paid to the management of MSW. Municipal waste management is an essential and routine service which is indispensable. Services of MSW management play a key role in mitigating infectious disease transmission but are rarely mentioned in public health crises response communication Nghiem et al. Even before COVID outbreak developed countries had established municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities.

To illustrate, in Japan, Countries such as Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway incinerate more than Austria is handling its MSW through composting In , the UK recycled By , there were 78 incineration facilities with the energy recovery system with the capacity of 8. Unlike other developed countries, more than In both Fig. A study conducted to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from MSW in Indonesia has reported that A comparative analysis of energy and economics in generating electrical energy from urban solid waste in Brazil reported that A review study of environmental sustainability assessment of MSW land disposal for Indian cities estimated that more than In populous countries like China, incineration is the most widely used WtE option Kumar and Samadder, Istrate et al.

Barring the biological and physiological factors of virus, there are other crucial factors like social and urban fundamentals of the transmission of COVID which influence the outbreaks to a large scale Liu et al, The survival time of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on different material surfaces is vital to decide the disinfection and precautionary measures for personnel handling such materials Kampf et al.

Hence these parameters may affect the spread of the infection in urban areas and similar set ups through inadequate management of MSW. Respiratory droplets are generated when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Apart from human to human transmissions, droplets may also land on surfaces where the virus could remain viable; thus, the immediate environment of an infected individual can serve as a source of transmission WHO, Warnes et al.

Virus was removed and assayed for infectivity at various time points Warnes et al. Doremalen et al. Kampf et al. The range of survival times estimated by these studies is presented in Fig. Li and Jenq and more recently Kalogiannidou et al. Kumar and Samadder have estimated that the inorganic fraction of MSW which mainly consists of plastic, rubber, metal and glass is approximately This indicates that waste materials generated from households and quarantine facilities with the infected or suspected patients may contain possible SARS-Cov-2 and could be a source of infection for people outside the facility Nghiem et al.

Population density is the number of people living in area per square kilometer Priyadarsini and Suresh, During COVID outbreak, presence of any potential source of infection on wastes collected from healthcare facilities and residential premises with COVID positive cases will risk the health of personnel involved in waste management. COVID spreads by droplets shed of the respiratory system by someone with the virus, which implies that it would spread with higher proximity of people, larger contact networks and lower levels of hygiene Saadat et al.

By reducing contact rates, the growth rate of the outbreak can be reduced. Controlling contact rates is a key to outbreak control, and such a strategy depends on population densities Rocklov and Sjodin, Aparcana reviewed the role of informal sectors in management of MSW in low-income and middle-income countries; study noted a significant contribution of informal sector in waste recycling and material recovery in countries like Bangladesh, China, India, Mali, and Philippines.

Informal sector in MSW management may refer to individuals, families and private micro-enterprises working in waste management services, whose activities are neither organized, sponsored, financed, contracted, recognized, taxed, nor reported by the government authorities Paul et al.

The people involved in the informal sector waste recycling reside in the proximity of waste dump sites under the dire hygiene and sanitation conditions. The pandemic is predominantly detrimental to members of those social groups, including people living in poverty situations, aged people and individuals with disabilities.

They are highly vulnerable to the outbreak. Early evidence indicates that the health and economic impacts of the virus are being borne disproportionately by poor people and suffer inexplicably both from the pandemic and its aftermath, whether due to limited movement, fewer employment opportunities, increased xenophobia etc.

United Nations, Managing medical waste from hospitals is a demanding task as residual pathogens have to be destroyed prior to disposal Klemes et al. These wastes are classified before their further processing; the typical composition of healthcare waste is approximately Treatment facilities are typically equipped to handle steady-state conditions where the medical waste is handled at a predictable average flowrate and composition. The choice of treatment is a function of economic, technical, environmental, and social acceptability.

Rapid increase in waste volume is likely to upset systems that are designed for steady-state conditions Klemes et al. Disposal of non-hazardous waste from healthcare facilities follows the typical solid waste management protocol WHO, This has been the practice in several countries, for instance, India, in its guidelines to manage health care waste during COVID pandemic, has recommended the disposal of general solid waste generated from medical facilities including households with positive COVID cases as per the prevailing local method of disposing general solid waste CPCB the Government of India, Medical waste generated in select Asian cities during this pandemic is presented in Table 1.

Estimated volume of medical waste in select Asian cities Asian Development Bank, Table 1 shows the estimated volumes of medical waste generated based on the experience of China Asian Development Bank, Based on the estimates from Table 1 it can be noted that during COVID outbreak, cities collectively contributed around With the rapid rise in the number of confirmed cases, the amount of COVID related medical waste also increased significantly Peng et al.

Observing how the additional waste overwhelmed China's medical transport and disposal infrastructure, the Asian development bank has emphasized the need for additional waste management infrastructure to reduce the further spread of COVID and the emergence of other diseases. The amount of waste overloads the existing treatment and disposal facilities, posing the risk of secondary contagion from inadequate waste management Klemes et al. To handle the surge in waste amount, Spain has recommended that if necessary, cement plants can co-incinerate waste upon request.

In Norway, the government has allowed temporary change in landfill permits and permits to carry waste elsewhere to cope with the medical waste surge ACRPlus, Following the measures during circuit breaker period till 1 June , Singapore's public waste collection services PWCs are facing manpower constraints, which have affected some of their collection schedules.

The PWCs have made interim operational adjustments in some areas and selectively implemented alternate day collection of refuse at some landed premises and housing development board premises National Environment Agency Singapore, Countries have mitigated COVID transmission through social distancing, self-quarantining, avoiding large gatherings, working from home, sending back students to their residences, providing online education, reduced travel, limiting visits to stores and many such activities have become routine during this pandemic Sarkis et al.

These measures have led consumers to increase their demand for online shopping for home delivery. Consequently, amount of biodegradable household waste has increased Zambrano-Monserrate et al. This unprecedented situation presents significant challenges for the provision of waste collection, treatment and disposal of wastes Nghiem et al.

Waste recycling aims to optimize the use of different resources for the purpose of achieving more general profit and less waste production Almasi et al. Recycling of domestic recyclable waste in most developed countries is part of the MSW management that is directly managed by government departments. The recycling is always operated by standardized, specialized enterprises; thus, in most developed countries recycling systems could be considered as formal systems.

Nevertheless, for many developing countries that have relatively low economic and regulation level the treatment of MSW is not well developed Fei et al. In an effort to continue MSW management services during COVID outbreak developed countries have prioritized waste categories for collection and further processing. Singapore has reduced the frequency of recyclable waste collection from the housing premises during circuit breaker period National environmental agency, Singapore, The accumulated recyclable waste from households may act as potential source of infection if there are any suspected cases of COVID in the proximity.

Such waste poses threat to waste management personnel as well. Most of the European countries have prohibited waste segregation in corona virus infected households ACRPlus, Waste recycling in developing countries is driven by both formal and informal sectors, during the current coronavirus pandemic, while personnel involved in waste handling across the countries are protecting their communities, those in the informal sector face risk to their own health and livelihoods as countries lockdown and economies slow down World Bank, The importance of implementing best management practices for waste handling and hygiene should be reemphasized to limit workers exposure to potentially contaminated waste Nghiem et al.

The current coronavirus crisis tests the pre-pandemic municipal waste management system of the countries, underscores the lacunae and proffers opportunities to establish sustainable waste management system. Due to social distancing protocols, lockdowns and prohibited entry in cities or provinces to contain the disease transmission, the movement of people is restricted and this affects routine waste collection. The mismatch between limited waste collection and surplus waste generation during pandemic exacerbates waste management activities.

Alternative approaches to alleviate burden on existing waste management system are required. One possible solution for undisrupted waste management is integrating decentralized approach with the existing MSW management system. Decentralized waste management involves treatment and recycling of the waste in the vicinity of waste generation source.

This reduces the burden on waste collection and transportation services, which can significantly reduce the risk of infection to personnel involved. Moreover, decentralized approach can be implemented for select types of wastes at reduced investment and operating cost.

Finally, the approach is easily adaptable to the existing waste management practices Bhave and Kulkarni, Integration of different approaches for solid waste management optimizes the existing systems and implements new waste management systems. In addition to climate concern, the recycling and energy recovery enriches the resource efficiency and reduce the environmental impacts from greenhouse gas emission Ramachandra et al.

However, further study is required to assess the feasibility of incorporating decentralized systems in existing waste management system, during unprecedented events like COVID outbreak. The temporary waste storage and reduction site TWSRS is a place with specific logistic characteristics that allows to temporarily storing waste and debris, waiting for the final disposal.

During the storage, it is possible to pre-treat waste, reducing the volume by grinding and screening Gabrielli et al. For waste management during the natural or manmade disasters, the United States Federal emergency management agency FEMA recommends developing temporary waste storage and reduction sites between waste generation sites and final disposal sites. Temporary waste storage sites play multiple roles. Firstly, they can provide a buffer and space by hauling waste from the source of waste generation to the TWSRS.

Secondly, operations such as sorting, shredding, and chipping can be done at the TWSRS to reduce the amount of waste as well as preparing for recycling.

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The structure of MB is thought to be as leaner or lying flat on the surface leading to a simple electrostatic interaction between the surface of the adsorbent and the dye [ 84 ]. This work demonstrated a successful preparation of low-cost adsorbents prepared by geopolymerization. The presence of alumino-silicate gel demonstrated the success of geopolymerization.

The adsorption process in both adsorbents was best described using the Langmuir model. The maximum MB adsorption capacity was The outcome of this study also sheds light on the ability of utilizing local by-products as a highly efficient, potentiated, and inexpensive adsorbents in contrast to other expensive adsorbents offered in the market.

It possesses advantages such as high adsorption efficiency, easy separation from the liquid solution, waste minimization, cutback in landfilling practices, and preventing the utilization of virgin raw material. For future studies, the adsorbents shall be further exploited in order to enhance the geopolymer capabilities of effectively removing other cationic dyes from dyeing wastewater or other emerging pollutants and also explore the possibility of utilizing it on a larger scale.

Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript. Introduction The treatment of major water pollutants such as toxic metals, drugs, and dyes has become one of the major environmental concerns in the scientific community [ 1 , 2 ].

Materials and method 2. Sample collection and preparation To obtain a homogenous and representative sample, replicate samples were collected at different periods. Adsorption isotherm studies All experiments were performed using the batch process. Results and discussion 3. Characterization of the prepared Geopolymers 3.

Download: PPT. Scheme 1. Schematic representation of geopolymerization [ 37 , 38 ]. Fig 4. Table 1. Table 2. The studied isotherm models linear equation and plots. Table 3. Various studies on MB adsorption using industrial waste. Fig 6. Molecular structure illustrating the reduction and oxidation of MB equilibrium. Table 4. Thermodynamics studies Thermodynamic parameters, i.

Table 5. Fig 7. Conclusion This work demonstrated a successful preparation of low-cost adsorbents prepared by geopolymerization. Acknowledgments The findings achieved herein are solely the responsibility of the author[s]. References 1. Sharifpour E. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 40, — Dil E. Modeling and optimization of Hg2 ion biosorption by live yeast Yarrowia lipolytica from aqueous solutions under artificial neural network-genetic algorithm and response surface methodology: kinetic and equilibrium study.

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Journal of Environmental Sciences , 34 , Development of magnetic separation and quantum dots labeled immunoassay for the detection of mercury in biological samples. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology , 30 , Use of mercury-based medical equipments and mercury content in effluents of tertiary care hospitals in India. Study on removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas over activated coke treated by acid.

Applied Surface Science , , Health risk and significance of mercury in the environment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 22 1 , Food Analytical Methods , 8 1 , Sustainability , 6 12 , Recycling research on spent fluorescent lamps on the basis of extended producer responsibility in China. Analyzing environmental hotspots of proposed landfill extension and advanced incineration facility in Hong Kong using life cycle assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production , 75 , Effect of water quality on mercury toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum: Model development and its application in natural waters.

Mercury pollution in fish from South China Sea: Levels, species-specific accumulation, and possible sources. Environmental Research , , Mickens , Zerihun Assefa. Journal of Luminescence , , Emission characteristics and air—surface exchange of gaseous mercury at the largest active landfill in Asia. Atmospheric Environment , 79 , Highly elevated emission of mercury vapor due to the spontaneous combustion of refuse in a landfill. Atmospheric Environment , 77 , Zeng , Hefa Cheng. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the surface soils of a region that had undergone three decades of intense industrialization and urbanization.

Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 20 9 , Mercury speciation and emission from municipal solid waste incinerators in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques. Mercury risk from fluorescent lamps in China: Current status and future perspective. Environment International , 44 , Dasgupta , Fuangfa Unob. Automated on-line preconcentration of trace aqueous mercury with gold trap focusing for cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

Talanta , 99 , Anderson , Ying Xing , Lihai Shang. Remediation of mercury contaminated sites — A review. Pair your accounts.

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This information allows the Agency to target activities that will ultimately maximize source reduction, recycling and composting of materials. Check out our Frequent Questions page for more information. This report breaks down data by materials and products. This section discusses the breakdown by material. The figure above shows the breakdown of MSW generation by material. Organic materials such as paper and paperboard, yard trimmings, and food continued to be the largest component of MSW.

Paper and paperboard accounted for Plastics comprised Glass followed at 4. Other made up 1. Click this link to see how to download the summary data tables and view the research memos. EPA studies a variety of materials for this report. Each of the materials has its own page of information and data.

The materials include:. This section discusses the breakdown by product. Products are what people buy and handle, such as newspapers, bottles and cans. The breakdown of the Durable goods made up over Food made up This figure shows graphically that generation of durable goods has increased very gradually over the years. Nondurable goods, along with containers and packaging, have accounted for the large increases in MSW generation.

The materials composition of containers and packaging in MSW in is shown in Figure 17 of the Data Tables , and additional containers and packaging detail is shown in Figure Each of the products studied in each product category are compiled together on their respective pages. The durable goods that EPA studies for this report include:. The nondurable goods that EPA studies for this report include:. The containers and packaging that EPA studies for this report includes:.

Municipal solid waste can be used to generate energy. Several technologies have been developed that make the processing of MSW for energy generation cleaner and more economical than ever before, including landfill gas capture, combustion, pyrolysis , gasification , and plasma arc gasification. United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA regulations in and under the Clean Air Act have succeeded in reducing emissions of dioxins from waste-to-energy facilities by more than 99 percent below levels, while mercury emissions have been reduced by over 90 percent.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the punk band, see Urban Waste band. Type of waste consisting of everyday items discarded by the public. For other uses, see Municipal waste disambiguation. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.

March Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Grand Coulee Dam. Environmental Technology. Christchurch City Council. Retrieved 19 March Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. US EPA. March New York: The New Press. Biosolids , waste , and waste management. Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future Cleaner production Downcycling Eco-industrial park Extended producer responsibility High-level radioactive waste management History of waste management Landfill fire Sewage regulation and administration Upcycling Waste hierarchy Waste legislation Waste minimisation Zero waste.

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The review revealed that sustainable mine-waste management practices are those that apply techniques to reduce and prevent mine waste prior to its generation; reprocess to further extract valuable materials or recover minerals that may have been previously overlooked; downcycle remnant bulk material for a low purpose; and responsibly treat and dispose after all possible uses for the materials have been considered. Poor mine waste management has ecological, social and economic implications with rippling effects on ecological and human systems lingering on for many generations.

Keywords : mining sustainability; mine-waste generation; mine-waste management practices; mine-waste review. This study aims to identify the MSW management practices of the 38 largest Brazilian cities municipalities with a population higher than thousand inhabitants. For this purpose, a quantitative study is proposed based on a statistical treatment of 13 indicators presented in the Brazilian National System of Information on Sanitation for Solid Waste of the period The result of the analysis suggests low compliance with the principles of the Brazilian National Policy on Solid Waste.

The difficulty and opportunities for MSW management discussed. For example, the municipalities that generate large volumes are directly proportional to the consumption of the population. Regarding the practices, we observed a positive effect of the adoption of street sweepers on the total recovered, recycled materials.

Biosorption has been used as an important method for removing heavy metals. The paper explores the effect of agitation time, initial concentration of copper, pH, adsorbent dosage and temperature on the removal of Copper ions. Identification of the contributions of the various MSW life cycle stages to life cycle impacts could possibly assist in designing corrective MSW management measures as well as identifying alternative MSW life cycle stages that could possibly minimize the impacts.

Results show that waste collection contributes to increased acidification, eutrophication and global warming of 0. Anaerobic digestion of biodegradable MSW generated in urban areas within and surrounding Harare contributed to increased acidification, eutrophication and global warming impact potentials of 0. AD only contributes less potential impact increases than waste collection and transportation with regards to global warming.

Overall, incineration is environmentally sustainable compared to landfilling despite it contributing slight increases in acidification and eutrophication impacts. Therefore, strategies earmarked at reducing the positive contributions need to be developed.

Keywords : Municipal solid waste management; life cycle assessment; life cycle impacts; life cycle stages; eutrophication; global warming; human health; acidification; sustainable; Harare; Zimbabwe. However, they produce large amounts of waste that must be treated and disposed of properly. Thickening is the prior step and most important phase for sludge disposal or even reuse.

This study evaluated the thickening of the sludge of a WTP by sedimentation and dissolved air flotation DAF , using anionic, non-ionic, and cationic polymers, with dosages ranging from 0 to 5. The parameters evaluated after thickening were: turbidity of the clarified water; concentration of solids and filtration resistance, of thickened the sludge.

DAF thickening resulted in lesser turbidity in the clarified water The highest solids concentration was found in the sludge thickened by sedimentation 7. Sedimentation thickening resulted in sludge with a smaller filtration resistance 9. In comparison with thickening, sedimentation proved to be a more promising alternative, showing better results regarding solids concentration and filtration resistance, thus being a good treatment alternative to avoid undue disposal of this residue.

Keywords : polymers; sulfate sludge; thickening by flotation and sedimentation; sludge treatment; sludge disposal. Disposal management of these materials is challenging due to the difficulty of separation and insufficient research into their recycling process. Selection of appropriate collection, separation, processing, and recycling and disposal methods based on scientifically-acceptable principles will help to effectively control.

In this study, the development of an innovative method for recovering valuable metals from electronic solid wastes has been studied and the results show that the use of supercritical extraction method in extracting its metals has high efficiency and superiority over the methods. Traditional and conventional extraction is more commercially satisfactory. Benefits such as reduced process time, fluid-like solubility and penetration power such as gases, high selectivity, no environmental problems, reduced solvent utilization in this method, complete and easy solvent recovery.

In order to rationally plan pollution control strategies, adequate knowledge of nature and magnitude of pollution load contributed by different sectors of industries is a pre-requisite. In this paper we quantified the pollution potential and their reduction with and without control device from grossly polluting industries in the country.

The Central Pollution Control Board identified the seventeen grossly polluting industries and their total numbers have been obtained from various states as The paper revealed the volume of wastewater and air pollution generated per day and pollution potential pollution load in terms of important pollutants were then calculated on the basis of production and their numbers in the country.

Keywords : Air pollution; Water pollution; Assessment; Industries. This has left a legacy of issues with the management of this type of waste, especially for developing nations. This paper has examined the associated factors of medical waste management MWM practices in healthcare facilities in developing nations. Medical waste MW definitions have been examined, and factors associated with its management, from regulation and policy formulation to disposal, have been identified through desk research of existing studies.

This paper found that in some countries where MWM legislation and policies exist, some are either poorly formulated or are an offshoot of general environmental waste management regulations. More specifically for developing countries, this study found that training, segregation, handling and disposal practices and implementation of MWM programmes were often at a poor standard. Poor regulatory frameworks, poor risk awareness and training, poor financing, influence of social factors such as cultural norms, poor infrastructure and technological advancement were some of the factors identified as key issues.

This paper viewed the challenges of MWM practices in developing countries to be much more of a management issue than a technological issue and has identified advanced routine management approaches within an integrated sustainable MWM framework as a tool to drive improvements in MWM programmes. Keywords : developing countries; healthcare facilities; medical waste; sustainable medical waste management; waste management practices.

Both batch and continuous systems were used. In the continuous system, different flow rates were used. The study examined the implementation of artificial neural networks ANN for the prediction of furfural degradation in aqueous solution. A correlation coefficient of 0. Keywords : Advanced oxidation process; Furfural; Fenton process; photo-Fenton; Artificial neuron network. This present study analysed the levels of trace metals in leachate collected from two waste dumpsites in Pretoria, South Africa.

Method: An open ended questionnaire was designed in order to obtain information on management options from the two waste dumpsites used for the study. Managers were interviewed on their management options. Leachate samples were collected in triplicates from leachate ponds and stored below 10 degrees Celsius.

Trace metal contents were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS A student t- test was used to check the significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals from the two waste dump sites.

Results: The result showed that both sites lack leachate collection and treatment systems and there are no official recycling programmes in place. The levels of lead Pb , manganese Mn , chromium Cr , mercury Hg , arsenic As , and nickel Ni were all above the recommended limits.

There were significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals obtained at the two waste dump sites. Conclusion: Waste management methods are not up to the required standard. Its purpose is to provide strategic decision support for risk management related to healthcare waste faced by our hospitals all based on knowledge of the attitude and cultural level of health staff regarding the hospital waste management system. Thus, to be able to improve working conditions by technical, organizational and human solutions, which allow preserving the health and improve health and safety at work of employees while engaging in a continuous improvement process.

As a case study, we chose Dr. Benbadis University Hospital Center UHC of Constantine, to highlight an action plan that meets the sanitary and hygienic requirements of healthcare waste on public health.

The methodology consists of developing a questionnaire based on dependent variables and their indicators, which are related to hypotheses and the objectives of our work. It includes open-ended, closed-ended and direct questions to gather information that allows testing hypotheses. This questionnaire aims to verify this statement and point precisely to the difficulties encountered. The participants in our study are made up by the agents of the hospital. Conclusion: Healthcare activities help to preserve health, healing patients and saving lives.

Unfortunately, the waste generated by these activities generates crucial economic, sanitary and ecological problems and represent a real threat to public health and to the environment especially of which are the contagious. Henceforth, the proposed approach will allow to analyze the cultural level of the actual safe hygiene in terms of waste management and to put in place effective actions to improve the identified weaknesses.

These elements provide ways for prioritizing improvement actions as part of a global program. This approach can be generalized for other care facilities. This management is essential for a sustainable development.

Practical implication: This work is an information, awareness and mobilization tool for a better prevention of contagions in our hospitals. The results of this work will make it possible to impose a discussion and open negotiations on this subject. This work will open a national debate about the hospital waste management file. Originality: It is first of its kind that this work has been done in our hospitals, as the management of healthcare waste is taking more and more importance in the field of the public health and the environment.

All the actions carried out up to now have been proved defective and disparate. Through this contribution, we try to evaluate the cultural security level in order to adapt the most appropriate techniques and measures on the one hand and attract the attention of managers on the other hand. This study evaluated the characteristics of biochar in the potential of function as solid fuel and soil amendments.

Biochar were obtained from carbonization of bamboo waste and cow dung. Composite biochar were prepared with a combination of bamboo waste and cow dung derived biochar in 21 variations. The characteristics were determined based on their proximate and ultimate analysis and their calorific value. Data proximate analysis of biochar obtained in the Mc range from 5. Data ultimate analysis of biochars obtained in the C range from Whereas the HHV of biochar in the range from 6. This study showed that the more proportion of waste bamboo, biochar obtained was increasingly potential as solid fuel and the more proportion of cow dung, biochar was increasingly potential as a soil amendment.

In other words, biochar from pure bamboo waste is more potential as solid fuel and from pure cow dung is more potential as soil amendment. This indicate that the potential utilization of biochar is determined by the feedstock Keywords : Biochar; bamboo; cow dung; fuel; soil amendments. Abstract : Remediation of contaminated sites requires the knowledge of contaminant transport processes and their rates which are modeled considering the Advection-Dispersion Equation ADE and requires software assistance to be performed using iterative calculations.

This paper presents the utilization of various software tools to solve the equation. Different schemes of the Finite Difference method are tested using software tools viz. An Excel spreadsheet solution is created for reactive solute using the Finite Difference method. This paper demonstrates the use of column leaching tests and MATLAB programs for selecting the suitable chemical solution and the quantity required to leach out the contaminants from the contaminated sites.

These studies also help in the design of liners for waste containment facilities. Keywords : Column test; Dispersion coefficient; Distribution coefficient; Soil washing; Breakthrough curve; Elution curve. The improper management of Solid waste can cause a hazard to living being and environment. The problem of solid waste management is at the initial stage at South Indian University campus.

A detailed survey was done regarding the method of practices associated with sources, quantity generated, collection, transportation, storage and treatment and disposal of solid waste in South Indian University, campus. The data were obtained from field visits, interacting with people and questionnaire. The survey data reveals the existing system of solid waste management practices followed in South Indian University campus.

Keywords : solid waste; management; biomass; energy conversion; feasibility. Hospital sewage due to its high concentrations of antimicrobials, it exerts pressure on microorganisms that leads to the development of resistant strains. The current study sought to determine microbial diversity and antibiotic profile of isolated strains from St. Joseph's hospital sewage water disposal ponds, Roma, Lesotho. The antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the most commonly applied antibiotics viz.

The effect of other antibiotics was found to be at intermediate and susceptible percentage fractions against some isolates. The study prevails that the presence of resistant microorganisms in hospital sewage water need stringent waste management policy to study periodically the antibiotic profile of hospital sewage water to avoid the development of potential risks by nosocomial contaminants. Keywords : antibiotic profile; antibiotic resistance; hospital sewage; microbial diversity; treatment; impact; microbial profile; nosocomial.

In Brazil, according to a diagnosis by the Secretariat for Sustainable Development and Environment, the Ilha de Deus fishing community, located in Recife - Pernambuco, produces about tons of charru mussel shell waste annually. This waste is deposited directly into mangrove areas, producing serious environmental and social impacts.

Seeking suitable ways to dispose of this waste, this study proposes possible uses for mollusk shells, identifying benefits, losses, and difficulties in the use of this waste through a systematic review of the literature. A chemical and thermogravimetric analysis of the mussel shell waste was carried out and several possible uses were proposed, mainly as a raw material for civil construction, taking into account local needs.

The shells can be used as aggregate for mortar and concrete for various purposes and as filters for the treatment of effluents. Keywords : bivalve mollusks; construction; recycled aggregates; solid waste; sustainable development. Nassereldine, Tasneem Y. The paper reviews the previous work and presents new experimental work. Artificial stone samples were casted according to two starting formulas obtained from local production facilities.

Later on, an engineered production formula was developed and tested, based on product quality. The investigated experimental parameters included: compressive strength, water absorption, and workability of fresh concrete. The experimental results indicated that high compressive strength and a low water absorption for artificial stone is technically feasible. In term of the compressive strength of artificial stone the marble dust contributed better than limestone wastewater.

Keywords : artificial stone; stone cutting; marble dust; waste; recycling; compressive strength; water absorption. Improvement of worsening environmental state is not only necessary for better life quality but also a moral duty to preserve the environment for upcoming generations. This study attempt to find out the probability of willingness to pay for an improved system to manage solid wastes generated in Cooch Behar Municipality, West Bengal, India using the contingent valuation method.

A total of respondents were interviewed using stratified random sampling through survey-questionnaire. To determine the socio-economic factors that affect the probability of willingness to pay, binary logistic regression was applied. Most of the residents are willing to pay extra money in form of direct donation or tax to get better waste management facilities and services.

Although it is found that year of effective schooling, income, awareness of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and distance of community bin from households have positive and statistically significant effect on residents willingness to pay while gender played a negative and significant role in determining willingness to pay. Age, place of residents and marital status of the respondents also had positive effect, but they do not significantly influence decisions on willingness to pay for improved solid waste management.

The findings of this study could contribute to design a more sustainable system for residential waste management in the Cooch Behar Municipality and other areas that have similar conditions. Keywords : Willingness to pay; improved solid waste management; binary logistic regression; Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.

Detergency test was done by examining various components of the nanofluidic detergent through spectrophotometer using Methylene Blue MB as the model of dirt. The experimental results revealed that the optimum composition of nanofluidic detergent to remove MB is 0. The output of this study is expected to provide an alternative solution for minimizing the use of harmful components from chemical-based cleaning agents.

Keywords : cleaning agent; environmentally friendly detergent; methylene blue; nanofluidic detergent; palmPAS; photodegradation; renewable surfactant; TiO2; waste management; water treatment. Besides the environmental issues, several landfill failures have been reported in recent decades caused irreversible damages for human health and imposed financial burdens on the governments.

To avoid such geotechnical failures having a thorough understanding of mechanical characteristics of MSW is crucial. To this end, we conduct standard compaction tests, direct shear tests, and consolidated undrained CU triaxial shear tests to obtain the mechanical properties of Shiraz MSW. Besides, using Slide 2D, we perform a back analysis to examine the geotechnical extents of the Shiraz landfill failure that occurred in during a firefighting operation.

It was shown that the back analysis results have a better correlation with the data gathered from direct shear tests. Model results show that MSW water content increase due to the firefighting operation led to MSW shear strength decrease and slope failure. Considering the complex components of MSW, it is necessary to increase case study research on understanding MSW mechanical properties to design landfills more precisely and prevent such potential disasters in the future.

Keywords : municipal solid wastes; shear strength; slope stability; back analysis; Slide 2D. It would also help in reducing the associated greenhouse gas emissions that emerges due to combustion of the conventional fuels. In a country like India where the amount of waste generated is humongous which can cause both environmental and social issues, co-processing could be a win-win situation for all the stakeholders.

This would help in both proper waste disposal and management by the municipal cooperation and reducing the emissions and adoption of alternative fuel by the cement manufacturers. This paper review the possibility of using MSW for co-processing in cement industry and the problem that are being faced while using this method of waste management. Few models are also explained which are currently adopted in different cities of India which further analyse the situation and issues in the country for the use of MSW.

One part of the areca betel plant that has not been widely used is its fiber. Thus, it is necessary to do further research, such as using the fiber as material in making pulp for handicraft paper. The pulp is the result of the fiber separation process from fibrous material. In the pulping process, there is a delignification reaction where lignin is degraded by solvent. NaOH concentration and cooking time need to be examined in making pulp since the higher the NaOH concentration and the longer the cooking time, the more hydrolyzed lignin increases automatically.

However, higher NaOH concentration and longer cooking time cause cellulose to hydrolyze, resulting a decrease in pulp quality. This research aimed to find out the optimal NaOH concentration and cooking time in making pulp from areca betel fiber in terms of the cellulose and lignin content produced.

The responses examined were lignin and cellulose content using Chesson method. Therefore, the optimal solution was chosen as the best solution and can be used as material for making handicraft paper. Effects of initial MO concentration, supporting electrolyte concentration, applied current, PH, and rotation rate were studied.

The results showed that the removal efficiency decreases with the increase in the initial MO concentration, increases with the increase in the supporting electrolyte concentration, increases with the increase in the applied current, increases when PH increases up to PH is 7.

The rotation rate of the anode significantly enhances the removal percentage of methyl orange. The reaction kinetics was studied and the reaction rate was calculated for different operating conditions. Keywords : Methyl orange; Electrochemical oxidation; rotating cylinder anode; stainless steel. Rice wastage was estimated by a combination of the Delphi technique and interviews. The statistical population was composed of all rice growers in Mazandaran Province in Northern Iran.

The sample size was determined as farmers by Cochrans formula. They were selected by multi-stage random sampling. It was the first research ever done in the region on recognizing the main factors influencing rice wastage by the Delphi technique. Nineteen experts were sampled by snowball sampling for the Delphi technique.

The main factors affecting the wastage and discriminating the paddy growers were identified by using ordinal logistic regression in STATA Software Package. According to the results, 12 local factors influencing rice wastage at planting, cultivating, and harvesting stages were derived among which pests Chilo suppressalis, Ephydra afghanica Dahl, etc. The findings of the ordinal logistic regression and marginal effects revealed that among the independent factors, six factors - including age, educational level, farm area, mean crop yield, number of machines owned, and rice waste management knowledge - had significant and positive impact on increasing the wastage and discriminated the paddy growers in four groups, i.

Finally, most of respondents Keywords : Rice wastage; rice growers; Delphi technique; Mazandaran. The whole essence was to establish the impact of such behaviour in limiting the success of recycling practises. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire targeted at the head of each household in the area. Analysis of the results showed that There was lack of basic recycling education and guidance and inadequacy in infrastructure and services which negatively deter the interest for recycling.

SWOT analysis shows increase in environmental awareness as the strength, insufficiently developed recycling collection infrastructure as weakness, development of convenient recycling collection infrastructures and incentives such as tax reduction as opportunities, while threats is that recycling may not be financially rewarding in short run. It was recommended that government should install more convenient recycling depots, as well as raising environmental awareness campaigns.

Leachate generated from MSW landfill sites is heterogeneous and exhibits huge temporal and seasonal variations. The parameters necessary to estimate LPI from an MSW landfill site are debated in terms of their variations sometimes, and their significance has been highlighted in the context of LPI. The LPI values of five major cities in India has been calculated in this study. The landfill leachate samples from these sites have been assessed using leachate pollution index to implement appropriate leachate treatment techniques for reducing the adverse effects on the environment.

The result shows that the Pallikkaranai landfill site for the Chennai city and Mavallipura landfill site for Bangalore city is highly deteriorating and may increase human health risk for nearby dwellings. It is concluded that LPI value can be used to assess the leachate pollution potential from landfill sites, particularly at places where there is a high risk of leachate migration and pollution of groundwater. This study also aims to serve as a guideline for implementing appropriate leachate treatment techniques for reducing adverse effects on the environment.

Keywords : Pulp and paper industry; Thomas method; Microorganisms; Biochemical oxygen demand; Rate constant; Effluent. It was perfomed a segmented regression analysis to historical data series trying to identify a statistically significant influence of NSWP on solid waste management in Brazil. Some results showed a possible positive influence of the policy but the implementation of the NSWP has not shown optimistic advances in recent years. Solid waste management in Brazil still lacks regionally and nationally integrated actions to improve its management.

The fundamental cycle of the model consists of five chemical reactions that include Hydrogen Production, Fuel Cell, and Sabatier Reaction in a cycle. In this study, some of the principles of the precedent model has been modified to enhance its performance and a twenty years production forecast has been undertaken to check the applicability of the proposed model.

The study reveals that Carbon dioxide emission and Methane consumption can be considerably reduced using this model. On the other hand, the oxygen concentration of air can be increased significantly. The national policy remains in draft since and has some serious loopholes. There is no clear institutional arrangement for policy formulation and implementation.

Therefore, National Policy has to be re-formulated and legitimated as a command and control policy. Compliance monitoring by relevant authorities is essential for proper enforcement of the legislation and policy decisions. Keywords : Biomedical wastes; healthcare facilities; legislation; policy; radioactive wastes. Soil samples were collected seasonally during dry and wet seasons, for two years from each site. The samples were analysed for selected metals using atomic absorption spectrometer after aqua regia digestion.

Sequential extraction showed higher proportions of Zn, Pb and Cu in the non-residual soil fractions with mobility factors suggestive of high mobility and bioavailability of the metals. Keywords : soil contamination; heavy metals release; e-waste management activities; Nigeria; open burning; dismantling; stockpiling; contamination factor; sequential extraction; mobility factor; bioavailability. The utilization of RHA in soil improvement has been widely investigated. However, the effect of different RHA types on the physical properties of soft soil such as Atterberg limits has not been clarified yet.

In this study, two types of RHA obtained from open burning and burning in a furnace will be used to investigate their effects on the physical properties of soft soil such as specific gravity, water content, and the Atterberg limits. The research results showed that the types of RHA have little effect on the change of water content and the Atterberg limits.

Nevertheless, the RHA with low silica content high carbon content will result in a higher decrease in specific gravity. Regarding the change in soil particles, the addition of both RHA types can lead to an increase in the silt content of treated soil. Keywords : rice husk ash; soft soil; burning conditions; specific gravity; water content; liquid limit; plastic limit; plasticity index. Zinc sulphide nanoparticles with crystalline structure were synthesised well with the help of the green synthesis method by using the residues of medicinal plant moshgak Ducrosia anethifolia.

The results of this work demonstrated the synthesis of zinc sulphide nanoparticles by using the wastes of Moshgak can be a good alternative for chemical synthesis methods. Magnesia is used extensively in the mining industry for the hydrometallurgical recovery of metals. The mining industry produces large volumes of mine-impacted water that could be used as a low-cost resource for producing the magnesia precursor.

This work aimed to optimize the first phase of a low cost magnesia production process, by carbonation of a synthetic solution simulating a liquid mine-waste. The optimal factor settings were: pH 9. Tests established that the target product, nesquehonite, was preferentially formed in the majority of the experiments.

Keywords : Mine impacted water; beneficiation; water treatment; carbonation; nesquehonite; MgO; response surface methodology. Sampling of leachate, physicochemical analysis, metagenomics DNA extraction and NGS were all done using standard techniques. Results of physicochemical analysis showed that heavy metals lead, cadmium and zinc were higher than levels permissible in potable water by WHO.

In decreasing abundance, the kingdoms classified were, protozoa, bacteria, archaea, unknown. Phyla analysis showed 14 microbial phyla of which, the top 5 were Unknown, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Ciliophora, and Proteobacteria. Class analysis revealed 18 classes A total of 34, 59 and orders, families and species were classified, respectively.

Amongst the classified species, medically importance ones were Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium sp, Propionibacterium acnes and Shigella sonnei. Furthermore, novel and industrially important species namely Ignatzschineria indica and Bacillus licheniformis, were also identified. Abdul-Majeed, Amer N. The results indicated that MWCNTs have been successfully oxidized and that their presence in the mixing membrane has been an important factor affecting membrane morphology and membrane permeability properties and making the membrane surface more capable of binding with water molecules hydrophilic , thus reducing the fouling of membranes.

For the rest of the modified membranes, the flux gradually decreased but was better than the bare membrane. The present study was conducted in the high-altitude Srinagar city, Kashmir, during for physicochemical characterization and quantification of MSW.

The average generation of MSW was assumed 0. The findings of MSW characterization of all the socio-economic groups showed a high bulk density in winter Further, results revealed organic waste Construction work uses a wide range of raw materials, most of which eventually ends up as landfill. That makes the construction industry one of the largest contributors to landfill waste and greenhouse emission like CO2 worldwide. Tests were conducted on concrete specimens to understand its behavior under tensile, compressive and flexural loading conditions.

The concrete mix prepared using plastic waste can be used for mass concreting and low load-bearing structures. Keywords : sustainable development; solid waste; non- biodegradable; plastic waste; concrete. Millipede Sprostreptus assiniensis samples were hand-picked, while soil samples were collected using hand auger, and then analysed for heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbon TPH using a spectrophotometer.

Levels of heavy metals, TPH in millipede, soil samples were higher in the study site compared to control. Mean metals concentration in soil were 0. Thorough clean-up is recommended for the total restoration of the environment. Analysis of the responses from the villages with and without practicing e-waste management systems showed that the villagers in China were most optimistic toward the conditions of their environment as opposed to those in Thailand.

The villagers in Japan, however, were most knowledgeable about e-waste containing precious metals. Also, a comparison of the responses from villages with practicing e-waste management systems showed that a higher number of the villagers of Hong Ren Old Village China demonstrated more positive perceptions than Village 3 Thailand and Kamikatsu Japan toward the concern over their respective environmental conditions, the relationship between the increased use of electrical and electronic equipment and its effects on the environment, and the knowledge about e-waste laws and rules adopted.

Keywords : Perception; e-waste; reuse; recycling; questionnaire survey. The reaction mechanism for catalytic ozonation was analyzed by introducing t-butanol as radical scavenger. The colour of RO4 azo dye solution was completely removed after 21 min of catalytic ozonation reaction. The addition of radical scavenger t-butanol in catalytic ozonation reaction indicated that the decolourization was mainly occurred through direct ozone molecular mechanism whereas degradation of non-colourful groups and intermediates were occurred through hydroxyl radical mechanism.

In total, sixteen geopolymer concrete mixes were prepared by varying the proportions of waste glass powder and Molarities M of NaOH solution. Experimental analysis based on mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete and prediction of properties with the application of Artificial Intelligence through Neural Network was done. The predicted mechanical property of geopolymer concrete with the application of Artificial Neural Network ANN was observed to agree with the experimental strength values.

The results showed that The second part of this work was dedicated to choose a lamp with the best intensity of irradiation. The maximum of current intensity generated by solar cells reaching the values of mA at This study aims to analyze the physical, chemical and biological variables of the leachate generate from a Brazilian MSW confined in five lysimeters over days. In three of the lysimeters the MSW was subjected to application of saline solution to evaluate its effect on the leachate characterisation.

As a result, the anaerobic biodegradation process of the MSW subjected to saline solution remained in the anaerobic acid phase for almost the entire monitoring period, delaying the methanogenic phase in days; however not completely inhibiting the biodegradation process. Moreover, the application of saline solution resulted in a decrease of the nitrogen ammonia concentrations in the leachate, nonetheless, it increased the values of electrical conductivity and total solids, and provided the slowest and gradual decrease in chemical oxygen demand.

Keywords : anaerobic biodegradation; lysimeter; municipal solid waste; saline solution; leachate; nitrogen ammonia. Through the trash to cash initiative conducted over a span of two years in Mabul, this paper aims to identify the best practices and limitations of permaculture practice on an island, as well as to uncover lessons for future pursuits.

Bhd company for two years to identify usable permaculture methods for island-based lodges. A case study design was chosen for this purpose as it allows numbers of small in-depth cases conducted throughout the course of two years. These cases were studied in a real-life context, applying permaculture principles while observing how they influence and are influenced 2 M. Siow et al. Using permaculture principles, a total of ten different initiatives were coined and tested on-site.

Top initiatives included: 1 collection of air-conditioner water; 2 composting; 3 environmental education. The major managerial challenges found were: 1 receptiveness of the initiative by workers; 2 change of mindset; 3 top-down initiatives. Borneo Jungle successfully reduced its costs and waste through this initiative.

Keywords : up-cycle; circular economy; backpackers lodge; ecotourism; sustainability. Becheleni, Edward M. Peters, Ricardo P. In this perspective, alkaline precipitation is studied, in the present work, aiming to remove scale-forming salts prior to evaporative crystallization of a reverse electrodialysis concentrate EDC.

The total organic carbon and inorganic carbon were analysed by thermo-catalytic oxidation with high temperature to assess the removal of organic compounds from EDC. The software PHREEQC was used to model the systems and a comparison with experimental results confirmed the credibility of the experiments. Furthermore, this would improve the downstream evaporative crystallization efficiency due to reduced incrustation potential.

Keywords : PHREEQC; desalination; calcium carbonate; magnesium hydroxide; reverse electrodialysis; scaling; hydrogeochemical model; precipitation; water reuse; demineralization process. Data were collected from respondents i. Findings reveal that organizational citizenship behavior for the environment OCBE and strategic human resource management SHRM practices have a significant positive relationship with EM.

In contrast, internal environmental operations do not have any significant association with EM in Bangladesh's context. There are limited empirical studies presented in the literature linking HRM practices and EM, and this research might help policymakers and researchers to get insights about the significance of HRM practices in improving EM of the ready-made garments RMG sector. Besides, this study also discussed the limitations of this study, directions for further studies, and implications for theory and practice.

The economic feasibility of RDF from agricultural wastes in Durban was carried out. The analysis was performed by determining some economic indices. The results showed that cost of processing dominated the cost of production but the availability of affordable solid agricultural waste for RDF production minimised the cost of RDF production. Keywords : biomass; agricultural solid waste; South Africa; refuse derived fuel; economic analysis; net present value.

Degradation of Rhodamine B dye using sono-Fenton process has been investigated. Knowledge management in relation to waste management WM implies optimising the application of a broad range of knowledge in WM towards attaining defined goals the know-why, know-who, know-how, and know-what of WM sustainability. The problem of waste and its management is not peculiar to only certain countries or continents; it is a global challenge that requires the management of vital knowledge in the WM chain for ensuring that sustainable waste management SWM goals are attained.

Global collaboration should be established to focus on knowledge gaps across the WM chain. The application of the knowledge management approach in waste management is new. This paper reviewed existing literature on waste management and synthesised existing knowledge to come up with conceptual frameworks for waste management and waste knowledge management.

The paper also presents an array of action points and recommendations based on the conceptual frameworks towards attaining the diverse goals of sustainable management of waste. Keywords : Waste; waste management; Knowledge management; sustainable waste management; conceptual framework. The objective of this study is to estimate energy generation from municipal solid waste MSW in the Jabodetabek covering Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi metropolitan areas, Indonesia. In this study, historical data on municipal waste is obtained from the Regional Environmental Agency and Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

This study uses the intergovernmental panel on climate change IPCC model to estimate energy generation from MSW for the years These results represent valuable information to improve the establishment of an integrated waste management system through policy and technology interventions in the Jabodetabek metropolitan area. Keywords : energy generation; municipal solid waste; IPCC. The effects of ultrasound power, dye solution pH, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage were studied.

The percentage of dye removal was The kinetic and equilibrium data of the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be The composite could be reused for two adsorption-desorption cycles. The physicochemical properties of all the adsorbents were analyzed and compared. The adsorption isotherm of PCP by all the adsorbents were fitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The maximum PCP adsorption capacity Qmax onto the adsorbents followed the ascending order of EFBB Keywords : adsorption; sorption isotherm; pentachlorophenol; biochar; activated carbon; chemical activation.

Existing waste management practices in Taif, Saudi Arabia, significantly contribute to increasing levels of air pollutants and steps must be taken to reduce air pollution levels. The purpose of this study was to develop effective modern waste management strategies to reduce air pollution in Taif based on a circular economy of prevention, reuse and recycling. The study used correlational hospital studies and community time series analysis to highlight the relationship between respiratory diseases and air pollutants.

To achieve better air quality in Taif, solid waste collection in densely populated areas must be improved by increasing the number and use of on-street recycling containers and specific waste collection sites. Keywords : Air pollution; circular economy; respiratory diseases; Saudi Arabia; Taif; waste management. The severe consequences on the environment insist on finding proactive effective solutions. This study has employed empirical research to investigate the driving factors of littering practice.

A sample of cases has been analyzed to test the effect of the inferred variables on littering i. Accordingly, this research recommends that policies can be more effective when proactively control littering attitude; by considering the influence of individuals psychology. Hence, raising awareness and reinforcing internal beliefs, as well as employing supervision and rules, would together cut off this phenomenon.

This study will contribute to the theory and policies related to waste management, and to the research methodology of similar concepts using the PLS-SEM approach. Further research is recommended for investigating other psychological factors that can affect littering practice. Keywords : littering practice; environment; inner conflict; psychology; smoking practice.

A total of four models consisting of one single and three multi-objective wasteload allocation models are formulated. The performance of these models is demonstrated on the 22 km long Delhi stretch of the river Yamuna, India. The cost functions in the optimization models is developed as power functions of BOD removal using the regression module of the SPSS10 software.

The response of wasteloads on the water quality is quantified in terms of transfer coefficient calculated using the QUAL2E water quality simulation model. The results reveal that amongst all the models, LCM achieves the best practical solutions. The CEM does not yield very practical and optimal solution.

Nematshavhawe, Marubini R. Ramudzuli, Martin J. The study examined the state and management of hazardous waste HW discarded by all eight salons located in the central business district of the town of Musina in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Nail varnish bottles were the most discarded HW product per week by all salons. Shop managers make use of municipal refuse bag for temporary storage, which are then transported to the municipal landfill site for final disposal.

Seventy five percent of respondents were unaware that the products they discard constitute HW. Current research tries to conceptualise on the basis of the drawback of MSWM models. Majority of studied models related to MSWM belong to decision making. Hence to conceptualise their drawbacks, models have been chronologically arranged on the basis of different time period.

It has led to understand the dynamism of models. In these models, different methodologies have been used such as life cycle assessment, multicriteria decision making, etc. The study finds out that several solid waste management models attempt to consider the sustainability using triple bottom line, i. Another drawback is that the models keep upgrading the methodology used for the MSWM analysis, whereas primary focus should be on the decision making procedure.

Keywords : models; municipal solid waste management; MSWM; solid waste management models; sustainability. Makkah is chosen as a study area due to the reason that, it has the most complicated mass movement of the people. Approximately two million citizens live in Makkah city; however, more than five times of this population, visitors come to this city every year. During the pilgrimage season, six million people come together at the same time on certain days.

This cause a great challenge for the Makkah municipality in maintaining clean and healthy conditions. There is one active landfill area for Makkah city that is maintained by discharging the leachate and removing landfill gas for the safety of the site. The months when the most garbage was collected were explained.

Environmental assessment of the current landfill site is also included. Keywords : solid waste management; waste quantities; waste characterisation; Makkah; landfill gas. Although slag is an end waste generated during iron and crude steel production, it comprises a significant amount of metal values.

The prime objective of this study is to recover the valuable metals present in the slag waste to minimise the waste generation as well as the adverse impact of disposal on the environment. This study focused on the recovery of magnetic material from steel slag by a magnetic separator based on its mineralogical characteristics and chemical composition. A full factorial experiment was designed for this investigation, and the obtained results were analysed by a mathematical model to validate the effect of process parameters on metal recovery.

The optimum conditions were identified, and a confirmation test was also performed at that condition. Keywords : steel slag; magnetic separator; waste minimisation; recovery; metal values; optimisation; mineral processing. Al-Sanad, Latifa I. Additionally, public willingness toward in-house waste segregation was investigated through one-on-one interviews.

The study randomly selected 61 houses and respondents. The sampling was conducted for three consecutive weeks. The recyclables were manually sorted into 17 subcategories. The estimated generation rate is 0. Keywords : municipal solid waste; MSW; recyclables; segregation; willingness; waste; sorting; Kuwait.

Air dispersion models predict the concentration profile of pollutants from sources to receptors. This paper presents a case study on the dispersion of air pollutants emitted from multiple sources stacks in the Bokaro Steel Plant, Bokaro Steel City, Jharkhand, India to quantify the contribution of various pollution sources to the local air pollution from the said steel plant.

In this study, the pollutant concentration profiles at x, y, z due to emissions from three major sources in the Bokaro Steel Plant were predicted using emissions data obtained from the Gas Utility Department, Bokaro Steel Limited.

The effect of wind velocity and stability class on the concentration profiles of major air pollutants viz. From the results, it is revealed that both wind velocity and stability class have a significant impact on the dispersion of air pollutants. Keywords : atmospheric dispersion; contaminant transport; plume; Gaussian dispersion model; meteorological condition; particulates; India.

The financial self-sufficiency showed variations, however, with an increase of 3 percentage points, while there was a decrease of 2 percentage points in the incidence of MSW expenses in the city. Furthermore, Brazilian legal limitations impedes total financial self-sufficiency with public cleansing, so the municipality must seek alternatives to improve its management of MSW, such as a more elaborate charging system.

Its adsorption capacity was evaluated for the adsorption of Cu II and Cr VI metal ions from waste water and factors affecting variables such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and concentration were extensively investigated. The sorption data obeyed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms but Freundlich isotherm was better mathematical fit than Langmuir model.

The Langmuir sorption capacity qmax was found to be Keywords : guar gum; coconut husk; silica; tin; copper; chromium; adsorption; nanocomposite. Ajibade, Bashir Adelodun, Temitope F. Ajibade, Kayode H. Lasisi, Christiana Abiola, James R. Adewumi, Christopher O. Physicochemical and microbial tests were carried out using standard procedure.

Soil samples were randomly collected using soil auger from the major Igbatoro and Iju-Itaogbolu , and the minor Ijare and FUTA dumpsites, at depths , , cm , with control samples taken at a distance 20 m away from each dumpsite. The physicochemical parameters measured include pH, total organic matter, total organic carbon and particle size distribution. The results showed that samples were predominantly acidic 4.

Although there exists some positive impacts of dumpings on soil, their adverse effects are life threatening. Keywords : soil pollution; solid wastes; dumpsites; indiscriminate disposal; Nigeria. Recent technological development and growing demands for new and better functioning electronics accelerate the amount of electronic waste e-waste worldwide, making it to be one of the fastest growing streams in many countries.

The estimated lifespan of electronics is about three to five years because of the increasing rates of consumption, new developments and urbanisation. E-waste contains many hazardous substances, such as halogenated compounds, heavy metals, radioactive substances and micro and nano-size dusts all of which require proper handling during the storage, collection, recycling and disposal stages.

This paper highlights the latest developments on e-waste generation and streams, current recycling technologies, as well as human health and environmental impacts of recycling materials and processes. Keywords : e-waste; electronic waste; recycle; reuse; health and environmental impacts; sustainability; economic benefits. In Brazil, municipal government is responsible for the solid waste management, but formal recycling is promoted by cooperatives supported by government and informal workers and enterprises also act on recycling activities.

Effective data on the reality of waste flows within the municipalities are scarce. For the most part, the results point to a great participation of local leaders managing informal collection in urban areas. The average recycling rate found is Results show great efficiency of small business which are able to improve sustainability of public services if seen as a part of the system.

Keywords : waste indicators; informal sector; recycling rate; informal recycling services; solid waste management modernisation; small cities solid waste management. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the management behaviour and disposal of medical wastes and its relationship with the factors affecting this event.

This analytical cross-sectional study was performed on workers in all healthcare centres and hospitals in south of Iran, Shushtar City. If the CCC is too far away, the probability that the neighbours deposit their waste in the container of the mixed fraction is greater. A Community composting centre with six modular units and bulking agent bags and B details of the modules during the composting process. Master composters evaluate the potential locations of the CCCs in the municipalities and the possible neighbourhood communities or small producers that would contribute bio-waste to the centres.

The treatment capacity, the surface requirements and the material resources can be dimensioned according to the data collected by the master composters. An installation protocol has been developed for the placement of the CCC, in which the following criteria must be fulfilled: The land must be either municipal public property or expressly authorized by the owner. The base consists of a lower layer of coarse gravel, a layer of fine gravel and the concrete pieces that make up the platform on which the modular units are seated and assembled.

As an essential part of an appropriate composting process, food and kitchen waste must be mixed with bulking agent crushed vegetable waste. This material is supplied by the municipality and comes from gardening activities, which involve pruning, cutting and removing vegetation of gardens, parks and other public spaces. Crates or bags with bulking agent are arranged in the CCC for use by the participants and master composters Figure 3. Participants of community composting receive initial training for the correct segregation and deposition of the bio-waste, as well as, information on the development of the composting process.

The master composters continue their educational work in CCC on a day-to-day basis where they talk with the participants or interested parties and resolve their doubts and questions. The CCC working protocol is based on the complete development of the process in three modular units of composting: the first unit corresponds to the contribution or feeding module in which citizens deposit the bio-waste; while the second and third units are used to carry out the transfers Figure 4.

These transfers homogenize the material and, therefore, increase the efficiency of the process, which allows the first unit to be left empty for new contributions by the participants. Depending on the number of participants or the volume of bio-waste to be assumed, the number of modular units required in each CCC is set up.

In this way, three stages are distinguished from the operational and process point of view in community composting. A Bio-waste feeding in the first modular unit, B transfer of the material from the first module to the second to continue the composting process, C compost screening and D details of the physical aspect of the compost.

The neighbours deposit the bio-waste only in the modular units of feeding and immediately cover it with an equal volume of bulking agent. The master composters mix the materials so that the process begins. An intensive degradation phase takes place with a high oxygen demand, which is necessary for metabolic functions of the microorganisms.

Large amounts of carbon dioxide and water vapour are released in this stage. The rise in temperature indicates that compost is developing properly. The modular units are assembled together but have slide-out panels on all sides. This allows easy access on all sides and the movement of the material from one unit to another.

Turning the material to the second module allows a more intense homogenization by mixing the most recent bio-waste inputs with degraded materials of the bottom. At this stage, the material might be too dry and the degradation process can stall; so, moisture control is important. The material of the second unit is turned towards the third unit where the compost maturation takes place. The temperature drops progressively and more complex compounds are formed.

The finished material has lost its original appearance. Compost is a soil-like material, dark with a pleasant earthy smell. Master composters sift the compost to facilitate its use as a fertilizer product or organic amendment. The compost can be distributed to citizens who have participated or can be employed by the municipal staff in the gardens and public areas.

As far as possible, the installation of urban or community gardens associated with CCC is promoted, so that the produced compost goes to the garden itself. The neighbours or small producers, instead of taking the compost produced for private use, would distribute the products of the garden.

In [ 13 ], it has been proposed that the shift of municipal waste management systems from landfill disposal to resource recovery requires, among other aspects, sufficient urban gardens to divert the compost produced. Throughout the process, master composters carry out the monitoring and control of composting and its key parameters taking of temperature, filling level measurement, correction of incidents, etc.

The small composting facilities will manage bio-waste that cannot be treated through the other lines of action due to technical or operational causes. As has been described, local composting, both home and community composting, presents requirements for its implementation. In the case of high population densities distributed in buildings of various heights, local composting cannot assume all bio-waste generated.

Therefore, it is necessary to implement a collection and transport service and bio-waste treatment in composting facilities. Following the principle of proximity, these facilities should be located close to the waste-production centres, so that the bio-waste transport is minimized and the treatment in areas near the point of generation is prioritized.

Medium-scale facilities could be established in the case of the two cities with the largest population of the province: Pontevedra and Vigo. Authors present different possibilities: The first phases of the plan are assumed economically by the Provincial Council of Pontevedra.

The Provincial Council of Pontevedra covers economically the implementation of the plan in the first phases. The Provincial Council of Pontevedra assumes the implementation of the plan in the first phases. In order to demonstrate, both to citizens and public managers, the role of community composting in the province of Pontevedra, the Provincial Council put a selective process in motion at the end of This process was aimed at municipalities that were willing to implement the management of bio-waste through community composting.

The municipalities interested in this new model were selected based on the following criteria: Submit agreements for the contribution of bio-waste free of non-biodegradable materials by neighbours and small producers to CCC. From this announcement, 22 municipalities were selected and modular units in 46 CCCs were installed in October In turn, master composters were selected and trained to give technical support, participate actively in the physical work of community composting and solve doubts and problems that may arise during the phases of the process.

This phase consists in providing the necessary means for the implementation of the new management model as a global system for the treatment of bio-waste at the municipal level. Formally joining the plan was required for the municipalities to guarantee compliance with the legal obligations for the bio-waste treatment through composting. The formal adhesion of the municipalities allows them to benefit from three provincial collaboration lines: training of technical personnel, preparation of a municipal waste management plan and financial aid for composters and other resources supply.

This second phase has allowed the Provincial Council to begin the implementation of the new management model based on the local composting of bio-waste by home and community composting in five municipalities.

These municipalities have decided to change the waste service betting on a decentralized model that will close the cycle of organic matter. These municipal entities are small between and 11, inhabitants with a scattered population and few high-rise buildings. To give continuity to the plan and provide it with more personnel resources, different selective processes have been called and two training courses in composting have been carried out during and These municipalities are implementing the composting plan at different levels, either community composting or a municipal waste plan that includes home and community composting.

The training and personnel selection activities have allowed 57 master composters who work at different levels and with different tasks and responsibilities. As part of the educational activities, sessions were taught with participants, among students and teachers, in 51 educational centres. The staff of the Provincial Council of Pontevedra actively participates in workshops, meetings, congresses, round tables, etc. These publications make it possible to give visibility to the plan not only at local and regional levels but also at national and international levels.

Likewise, the neighbours and small producers who participate in composting serve as an example for the rest of the citizens, which allows to gradually involve more sectors of the municipality. Next, the main results and advances of local composting are presented. Regarding the small composting facilities, the Provincial Council staff is making contacts with waste management companies with the aim of assuming the municipal bio-waste that cannot be managed by home and community composting.

The first deliveries of individual composters started in the spring of The staff of the Provincial Council conducts door-to-door visits to collect data on the residents address, number of family members, bio-waste management, etc.

It should be pointed out that in more rural communities, traditional recovery of household waste at the household level, home composting and animal feed have diverted a part of bio-waste from municipal waste management system [ 14 ]. For this reason, a part of the rural population generates a small amount of bio-waste because of on-site reusing, to which one must add the second homes and the phenomenon of rural depopulation.

The master composters call the interested residents of the neighbourhood in which they are going to carry out the training and the delivery of composters. During the follow-up visits to the home composters, the staff of the collaborating associations has solved doubts and established the necessary corrective measures related to the development of the composting process.

The main incidents observed were the scarce quantity or lack of bulking agent and low moisture conditions of the composting material. There is currently not enough data available to estimate the amount of bio-waste managed through this line of action. The Provincial Council is studying the methodology to establish the amount of organic fraction treated in composters and, therefore, determine the contribution of home composting in bio-waste recycling.

In November , 76 CCCs formed by modular units were in operation, spread over 28 municipalities in the province of Pontevedra. The master composters regularly visit CCCs, record the process parameters, such as temperature and changes in volume over time, and proceed to mix and turn the material between modular units, among other activities.

As previously mentioned, the work method allows the development of the composting process in three modular units. Figure 5 shows the temperature profile of a neighbourhood CCC and a small producer CCC, already settled in the population, during the monitoring of the process in the three units. Thermophilic temperatures were maintained for 65 days and 50 days in the neighbouhood CCC and small producer CCC, respectively.

In general, all CCCs reach high temperatures in the bio-waste input unit, although the development of the process will depend on numerous factors. Although, material in community composters are more isolated than the material present in home composters, the environmental changes can affect temperature development periodic access for bio-waste input and for process control tasks. Another factor that affects the process is the type of bio-waste: uncooked and cooked waste. The biodegradation of recalcitrant compounds accelerates after the cooking process.

On the other hand, [ 17 ] observed that when large amounts of waste were added at each feeding, compost temperature and maturity increased. Evolution of maximum temperature, fill level and turning during composting in the three modular units of A a neighbourhood CCC and B a small bio-waste producer CCC.

In the case of small producer CCC, it is observed that, after the turning of material from modular unit 1 bio-waste input to module 2 homogenization , there was a rise in temperature. The master composters perform deep or superficial mixing of the composting material according to the conditions of the process.

Although, the transfer of material from one module to another allows greater aeration and homogenization, which can facilitate an increase in temperature. After the process, the compost presents homogeneous appearance soil-like material , dark brown colour and a pleasant earthy smell Figure 4. To facilitate the use of the product as fertilizer, potting soil or organic amendment, it is necessary to sift it. Next, the analysis data of 76 composts sampled during the years — are presented Table 4.

In general, composts showed high contents of organic matter, although the self-heating tests showed stability values indicative of mature compost. Important variabilities were observed among the compost for some parameters, such as electrical conductivity, ammonium and nutrients.

The quality of municipal waste compost is dependent on many sources of variation including the composting facility design, feedstock source and proportions used, composting procedure, and length of maturation [ 18 ]. The different composition of the bio-waste affects the physicochemical characteristics of the compost.

The high ammonium content could be a consequence of problems of degradation of the organic matter during the composting process due to a lack of moisture. As for pathogen content, 7. The Spanish legislation on compost [ 20 ] classifies compost into three categories according to the heavy metal content: Class A, B and C. Figure 6 provides information on the variability in the heavy metals concentration indicating the respective classification categories.

The atypical data observed for Zn, Pb and Cd correspond to different compost samples with a metal concentration 4 times Zn , 7 times Cu and 52 times Pb above the mean values and, hence, they are considered outliers from analytical errors. Without taking into account samples with outliers, it is observed that For the last class, the metals Zn 4 samples and Cd 1 sample are those that exceed the thresholds of the regulations.

There is a consensus in the scientific literature that aerobic composting processes increase the complexation of heavy metals in organic waste residuals and that metals are strongly bound to the compost matrix and organic matter, limiting their solubility and potential bioavailability in soil [ 21 ]. Box plots of concentration data for six heavy metals in 76 samples of compost from community composting centres CCC.

In The presence of these heavy metals in the final compost may have different sources. In [ 22 ], it was concluded that the heavy metal content of the compost can be affected by the pollution of diverse exogenous sources and their origin can be found in the auxiliary materials used, the environment, the process or the storage method used. The possible sources of Zn are being evaluated to determine the necessary actions that reduce its content in the compost.

In Figure 7 , the estimation of bio-waste treated in the CCCs of the province of Pontevedra is presented since the implantation of the first centres until the first semester of the year The quantities of treated bio-waste were calculated from the data of filling level of the CCCs, percentage of volume reduction over time and densities of the different materials. Estimation by semester of the amount of bio-waste including the vegetal fraction used as bulking agent and the total amount accumulated in the CCC implemented in the province of Pontevedra.

Finally, it should be noted that community composting have transformed, through a biological and aerobic process, about tonnes of organic waste and vegetable remains, into a biologically stable material that can be used as a soil amendment. This reduces the impact of bio-waste on the environment and makes possible the use of the resources that it contains. The Provincial Council of Pontevedra promotes a change of model of waste management through the implementation of composting as treatment of the organic fraction generated in the municipalities, reducing the collection and transport services and the environmental and economic problems associated with them.

The new model has been designed to respond to the particularities of the province and the municipalities that compose it, so that it adapts to the population distribution characterized by dispersion in rural areas.

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Lesson 7 - Solid Waste Management

Recycling and composting prevented Learn manual street sweeping has virtually disappeared but it still commonly and yard wastes, paper, metals, where littering of public places is a far more widespread and acute problem. Others, such as pathological wastes generation of some major industrial streets, sources classification and composition of msw betting, alleys, parks and. It mainly consists of earth, stones, concrete, bricks, lumber, roofing recycled and french twinks fuck on a bet about 87 and electrical wires and parts equivalent to a On average, we recycled and composted 1. Hospital waste is generated during a consequence of house hold or consumer origin which because repairs, hobbies, redecoration, empty containers packaging, clothing, old books, paper and old furnishings. EPA encourages practices that reduce sludge is useful as a to be disposed of, such commercial wastes. Such wastes contain putrescible organic matter, which produces strong odours slaughterhouses, which are regarded as. This category does not include is particularly offensive and emits from single and multi-family house. Typical examples are solvents, paints solid wastes that originate in the construction, refurbishment, repair and separately, preferably after suitable treatment plastic and steel drums usually. Commercial bulky wastes include packaging and containers in a wide collected, transported and disposed off cardboard, and wood boxes, fiber, to render them innocuous. It includes wastes, which are the waste materials generated by as well as wastes, which million tons of this material, and other structures.

Municipal solid waste as an alternative energy source. Article Since MSW components have different classification groups based on their. In China, the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration solid residues is (southern China), was carried out in terms of chemical composition, Effect of Source-Classified Collection of Municipal Solid Waste on Heavy an acidified form, were characterized by AAS, XRD, FT-IR, BET, and TG. Figure 1: Composition of municipal solid waste (Source: World Bank/ classification of the AD used for MSW is shown in Table Possible interface risks bet-.