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Found at the land-sea interface, these systems are silica replete with large stocks in plant biomass, sediments, and porewater, and therefore, have the potential to play a substantial role in the transformation and export of silica to coastal waters. In an effort to better understand this role, we measured the fluxes of dissolved DSi and biogenic BSi silica into and out of two tidal creeks in a temperate, North American Rowley, Massachusetts, USA salt marsh.

One of the creeks has been fertilized from May to September for six years allowing us to examine the impacts of nutrient addition on silica dynamics within the marsh. High-resolution sampling in July showed no significant differences in Si concentrations between the fertilized and reference creeks with dissolved silica ranging from 0.

Net fluxes indicated that the marsh is a point source of dissolved silica to the estuary in the summer with a net flux of approximately mol h -1, demonstrating that this system exports DSi on the same magnitude as some nearby, mid-sized rivers. If these findings hold true for all salt marshes, then these already valuable regions are contributing yet another ecosystem service that has been previously overlooked; by exporting DSi to coastal receiving waters, salt marshes are actively providing this important nutrient for coastal primary productivity.

Biogenic silica contents of sediments on the lower Selenga Delta and Buguldeika saddle in Lake Baikal show distinct fluctuations that reflect changes in diatom productivity, and ultimately, climate. The pattern of the upper 50 m of the section, dating from about ka, is similar to that of the marine oxygen-isotope record, increasingly so as the younger sediments become progressively finer grained and less locally derived with time. The last two interglaciations are marked by biogenic silica abundances similar to those of the Holocene.

The equivalent of marine oxygen-isotope stage 3 is distinctly intermediate in character between full glacial and full interglacial biogenic silica values. Following near-zero values during the last glacial maximum, biogenic silica began to increase at about 13 ka. The rise in biogenic silica to Holocene values was interrupted by an abrupt decrease during Younger Dryas time, about 11 to 10 14C ka.

Coccolithophores are a critical component of global biogeochemistry, export fluxes, and seawater optical properties. We derive globally significant relationships to estimate integrated coccolithophore and coccolith concentrations as well as integrated concentrations of particulate inorganic carbon PIC from their respective surface concentration.

We also examine surface versus integral relationships for other biogeochemical variables contributed by all phytoplankton e. Surface concentrations are parameterized in either volumetric units e. Various relationships between surface concentrations and integrated values demonstrate that when surface concentrations are above a specific threshold, the vertical distribution of the property is biased to the surface layer, and when surface concentrations are below a specific threshold, the vertical distributions of the properties are biased to subsurface maxima.

Results also show a highly predictable decrease in explained-variance as vertical distributions become more vertically heterogeneous. Greatest integrated concentrations of PIC, coccoliths, and coccolithophores are found when there is moderate stratification at the base of the euphotic zone. PubMed Central. Abstract Coccolithophores are a critical component of global biogeochemistry, export fluxes, and seawater optical properties. Land use change affects biogenic silica pool distribution in a subtropical soil toposequence.

Land use change deforestation has several negative consequences for the soil system. It is known to increase erosion rates, which affect the distribution of elements in soils. In this context, the crucial nutrient Si has received little attention, especially in a tropical context. Therefore, we studied the effect of land conversion and erosion intensity on the biogenic silica pools in a subtropical soil in the south of Brazil.

We show that higher erosion in steeper sites implies increased accumulation of biogenic Si in deposition zones near the bottom of the slope, where rapid burial can cause removal of BSi from biologically active zones. Our study highlights the interaction of erosion strength and land use for BSi redistribution and depletion in a soil toposequence, with implications for basin-scale Si cycling.

Unraveling the atomic structure of biogenic silica : evidence of the structural association of Al and Si in diatom frustules. We used X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Al K-edge to investigate the atomic structure of biogenic silica and to assess the effect of Al on its crystal chemistry. Our study provides the first direct evidence for a structural association of Al and Si in biogenic silica. In samples of cultured diatoms, Al is present exclusively in fourfold coordination. The location and relative intensity of X-ray absorption near-edge structure XANES features suggests the structural insertion of tetrahedral Al inside the silica framework synthesized by the organism.

In diatom samples collected in the marine environment, Al is present in mixed six- and fourfold coordination. The relative intensity of XANES structures indicates the coexistence of structural Al with a clay component, which most likely reflects sample contamination by adhering mineral particles. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to get Al-O distances in biogenic silica of cultured diatoms, confirming a tetrahedral coordination.

Because of its effect on solubility and reaction kinetics of biogenic silica , the structural association between Al and biogenic silica at the stage of biosynthesis has consequences for the use of sedimentary biogenic silica as an indicator of past environmental conditions. Distribution and sources of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and biogenic silica in the sediments of Chilika lagoon.

The present study investigated the spatial and vertical distribution of organic carbon OC , total nitrogen TN , total phosphorus TP and biogenic silica BSi in the sedimentary environments of Asia's largest brackish water lagoon. Surface and core sediments were collected from various locations of the Chilika lagoon and were analysed for grain-size distribution and major elements in order to understand their distribution and sources.

Primary production within the lagoon, terrestrial input from river discharge and anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the lagoon control the distribution of OC, TN, TP and BSi in the surface as well as in the core sediments. BSi is mainly associated with the mud fraction. Core C5 from Balugaon region shows the highest concentration of OC ranging from 0.

The study highlights that Chilika is a dynamic ecosystem with a large contribution of OM by autochthonous sources with some input from anthropogenic sources as well. Diagenetic alteration of biogenic silica oxygen isotope values: implications for use as a paleoenvironmental proxy. Diagenetic alteration of biogenic silica dramatically changes our interpretation of silica isotope data from sedimentary records. Neotectonic Lake Chapala LC is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction JNTJ , that is located at the western end of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt geological province major andesitic composition and was generated by the activity of a Pleistocene continental arc.

The mean lake level is m above sea level with a mean depth of 4 m. Due to the shallowness and wind action the LC water is well mixed. The sedimentation rate SR throughout LC is not uniform. Hydrogeochemistry data is showed in Table 1. Biological proxies like diatoms and pollen occur over the last years B. Although vegetation changes cannot be interpreted with precision due to the high silica dissolution of diatoms, it is possible to make some inferences. The major diatom taxa are epiphytic, dominated by Surirella, Nitzschia, Amphora and Campylodiscus: evidence for a wide belt of submerged vegetation.

Diatom remains show dissolution and ulterior fragmentation. The diatoms in the last years B. The phenomena of silica biogenic dissolution cf. Lake Chapala. Biogenic porous silica and silicon sourced from Mexican Giant Horsetail Equisetum myriochaetum and their application as supports for enzyme immobilization. Porous silica -based materials are attractive for biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility and biodegradable character. In addition, inorganic supports such as porous silicon are being developed due to integrated circuit chip compatibility and tunable properties leading to a wide range of multidisciplinary applications.

In this contribution, biosilica extracted from a rarely studied plant material Equisetum Myriochaetum , its conversion to silicon and the potential for both materials to be used as supports for enzyme immobilization are investigated. Biogenic silicon was obtained by magnesiothermic reduction.

Although both biogenic silica and porous silicon could be used as supports differences in behaviour were observed for the two enzymes. For HRP, loading onto biogenic silica via the glutaraldehyde immobilization technique route B was most effective. The loading of CiP showed a much higher peroxidase activity onto porous silicon than silica functionalized by the carbodiimide method route A.

From the properties of the extracted materials obtained from Equisetum Myriochaetum and the immobilization results observed, these materials appear to be promising for industrial and biomedical applications. Biogenic silica resulting from the precipitation of dissolved Si through biological processes in plants, often contains small amounts of occluded organic carbon.

These phases, called phytoliths, have a long persistence in soils, making them tracers of past conditions. In this context, the knowledge of the carbon speciation associated with phytoliths bears significant importance in examining the carbon dynamics in soils. With carbon concentrations as low as the 0. Recent improvements of microwave sources enabled the application of the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization DNP technique to NMR, thereby establishing a new non-destructive tool for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the carbon speciation.

This is consistent with the hypothesis that parts of the carbon associated with the phytoliths is imported into the host plant via uptake from the soil. This speciation was obtained overnight with a DNP-NMR set-up with an excellent sensitivity few tens of weight ppm ; the same spectrum on a standard NMR spectrometer would have required at least days of data acquisition.

The considerable gain in sensitivity associated with the use of DNP now makes NMR a relevant technique for the analysis of environmental samples. The behavior of biogenic silica -rich rocks and volcanic tuffs as pozzolanic additives in cement. Cements produced with perlites, raw materials consisting mainly of a glassy phase, were characterized by higher strength and a rather ordinary specific surface area.

Cements produced with Turkish zeolite tuff and Milos glassy tuff exhibited higher late compressive strength than those mentioned above. The highest strength was achieved by the implementation of Australian diatomite for cement production. That could be attributed to both, high specific surface of cement and reactive SiO2 of diatomite. Therefore, a preliminary assessment regarding late strength of pozzolanic cements could be obtained by the consideration of two main parameters, namely: specific surface area of cement and reactive silica content of pozzolana.

The removal of exchangeable oxygen from biogenic opal prior to IRMS analysis is critical during sample preparation. Exchangeable oxygen is found in the form of hydroxyl and between defects within the amorphous silicate lattice structure. Typical analytical procedures utilize a variety of dehydroxylation methods to eliminate this exchangeable oxygen, including vacuum dehydroxylation and prefluorination. Such methods are generally considered sufficient for elimination of non-lattice bound oxygen that would obfuscate environmental oxygen isotopic signals contained within the silicate tetrahedra.

We have conducted a suite of experiments on purified marine opal samples using the new microfluorination method Menicucci et al. These changes are not accounted for by current researchers. Further, our experimental data indicate that vacuum dehydroxylation does not eliminate all exchangeable oxygen, even after hydroxyl is undetectable. Further, this variable amount of exchangeable oxygen may be responsible for some of the disagreement between existing empirical calibrations based on core-top diatom frustule remains.

Concentration of floating biogenic material in convergence zones. Some organisms that live just below the sea surface the neuston are known more as a matter of curiosity than as critical players in biogeochemical cycles. The hypothesis of this work is that their existence implies that they receive some food from an upward flux of organic matter.

The model shows that the distribution of FBM should depart rapidly from that of primary production, and be more sensitive to circulation patterns than to the distribution of primary production. It is trapped in convergence areas, where it reaches concentrations larger by a factor 10 than in divergences, thus enhancing and inverting the contrast between high and low primary productivity areas. Attention is called on the need to better understand the biogeochemical processes in the first meter of the ocean, as they may impact the distribution of food for fishes, as well as the conditions for air-sea exchange and for the interpretation of sea color.

Moriceau, B. Despite recent progress in understanding the ocean's role in the global carbon cycle, we are not yet able to predict the response of ecosystems to climate change and feedbacks of the ocean onto atmospheric CO2. In particular, particle flux dynamics must be represented more faithfully in ocean models. We know that particulate organic carbon POC flux is associated with ballast minerals BSiO2, CaCO3 , but the processes controlling the interactions between carbon and ballast minerals during decomposition must be explored further.

The present study aims to provide a better understanding of interactions between carbon and BSiO2 during mineralization of sinking particles. Previous studies have provided evidence that the degradation of the external membrane by bacteria increase the BSiO2 dissolution rate. Alternatively, it has been hypothesized that biogenic silica could protect carbon from degradation.

To test this hypothesis, an in-vitro batch experiment using the diatom Skeletonema costatum was conducted. In this experiment, carbon degradation, bacterial growth, and BSiO2 dissolution were followed simultaneously. To identify the processes involved and the types of carbon that eventually interact with BSiO2 during mineralization, the concentrations of different lipids and amino acids were also measured.

This increase is associated to a peak of glycine in total amino acids and a switch between free and attached bacteria. These results suggest that carbon degradation is increased when enough of the frustule is dissolved to uncover the glycine contain inside the frustule, this amino acid may trigger an increase in the concentration of attached bacteria, which may in turn increase the degradation rate constant of organic carbon.

Preservation efficiencies and accumulation rates for biogenic silica and organic C, N, and P in high-latitude sediments: The Ross Sea. Rates of biogenic sediment accumulation biogenic silica and organic C, N, and P and pore water flux have been established for a variety of depositional environments in the Ross Sea. On the basis of 14C measurements in kasten cores, sediment accumulation rates ranged from cm kyr-1 in the coastal basin of Granite Harbor to cm kyr-1 in the shelf and slope environments of the northern and eastern Ross Sea.

Burial of biogenic material was most rapid in the southwestern Ross Sea, where biogenic silica accumulation rates ranged from 2 to 31 g cm-2 kyr-1 and organic carbon accumulation rates ranged from 0. In the northern and eastern Ross Sea, biogenic silica and organic carbon accumulation rates typically equaled 0. Flux core measurements were used to estimate seabed regeneration rates for biogenic silica , organic carbon, and phosphorus. Pore water fluxes, in general, showed much less variability across the Ross Sea than did the biogenic accumulation rates.

Pore water silicate fluxes in the study area ranged from 0. Seabed preservation efficiencies were calculated for biogenic silica , organic carbon, and phosphorus by combining the solid-phase and pore water data. Sediment accumulation rate correlated strongly with both the biogenic silica and the organic carbon preservation efficiency data. A shift in the biogenic silica of sediment in the Larsen B continental shelf, off the Eastern Antarctic Peninsula, resulting from climate change.

In , section B of the Larsen ice shelf, off of the Eastern Antarctic Peninsula, collapsed and created the opportunity to study whether the changes at the sea surface left evidence in the sedimentary record. Biogenic silica is major constituent of Antarctic marine sediment, and its presence in the sediment column is associated with diatom production in the euphotic zone.

The abundance of diatom valves and the number of sponge spicules in the biogenic silica was analyzed to determine how the origin of the biogenic silica in the upper layers of the sediment column responded to recent environmental changes.

Diatom valves were present only in the upper 2 cm of sediment, which roughly corresponds to the period after the collapse of the ice shelf. In contrast, sponge spicules, a more robust form of biogenic silica , were also found below the upper 2 cm layer of the sediment column. Our results indicate that in this region most of the biogenic silica in the sedimentary record originated from sponge spicules rather than diatoms during the time when the sea surface was covered by the Larsen ice shelf.

Since the collapse of the ice shelf, the development of phytoplankton blooms and the consequent influx of diatom debris to the seabed have shifted the biogenic silica record to one dominated by diatom debris, as occurs in most of the Antarctic marine sediment. This shift provides further evidence of the anthropogenic changes to the benthic habitats of the Antarctic and will improve the interpretation of the sedimentary record in Polar Regions where these events occur.

Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role s of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate bio-polyP and biogenic silica bio- silica have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization hydroxyapatite formation. In this manner, bio- silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts.

Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer.

Composition and variability in the export of biogenic silica in the Changjiang River and the effect of Three Gorges Reservoir. Silicon Si plays an essential role in biogeochemical processes, but is still poorly characterized in the river system. This study addressed the biogenic silica BSi composition, origin and variation in the Changjiang River, and estimated the impacts of natural processes and human activities on the river Si cycling.

The Changjiang River carried phytolith BSi mostly comes from the middle and lower reaches area. This study demonstrates that phytoliths represent a significant contribution to the biogeochemical cycle of silica in coastal waters, and in-stream process exerts a great influence on the river Si loading and cycling.

All rights reserved. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated Age and genesis of the Upper Cenozoic deposits of the Tyumen oblast Western Siberia enriched in biogenic silica.

An integrated micropaleontological study of deposits enriched in biogenic silica was conducted on material drilled in the Zyryanka and Uspenka fields of the southwestern Tyumen oblast Western Siberia. The data obtained on palynology and diatoms allowed the assignment of the Zyryanka Field to the Turtas Formation lower part of the Chattian Stage of the Oligocene and the deposits of the Uspenka Field to be dated as Pleistocene.

The absence in the Zyryanka Field diatom assemblage of in situ marine taxa and the mass occurrence of freshwater species, gemmuloscleres of freshwater sponges, and zygospores of Zygnematales algae suggest that a nonmarine basin existed in the early Turtas time.

A considerable proportion of redeposited diatoms and dinocysts in the Quaternary deposits of the Uspenka Field suggest strong erosional processes during the time of deposition. The adsorption capacity of an adsorbent is determined by the adsorbent and the adsorbate properties.

The character of the adsorbent will play a major role in its ability to adsorb the corresponding adsorbate. Therefore, in this study we looked at the effects of variations of sodium silicate concentrations on the resulting magnetite silica adsorbent properties. The application of silica coating on the magnetite was carried out through a sol-gel process with sodium silicate and HCl precursors. Based on the characterization data obtained, it was found that the silica coating on magnetite can increase the resistance to acid leaching, increase the particle size, but decrease the magnetic properties of the magnetite.

Oxygen isotope values of biogenic silica from diatom frustules are a commonly used proxy in freshwater and marine environments, and provide a valuable archive of paleoclimatic information such as temperature and water cycle processes. Advances in analytical techniques have made oxygen isotope measurements of diatom silica more robust; however, to date, there are multiple published fractionation factors for biogenic silica , with no general consensus on which is 'correct.

Moschen et al, demonstrated that there is no difference in SiO2-H2O fractionation between different size fractions of diatoms and, therefore, no species-dependent effects. However, these studies are not in agreement with other published SiO2-H2O fractionation factors for biogenic silica in marine and freshwater environments. Here we present oxygen isotope data from modern diatom species collected from a wide variety of natural riverine and lacustrine environments in northern New Mexico, USA.

Temperatures at collection sites ranged from 5. Additional experiments were undertaken to examine the effect of differing chemical purification techniques i. Eddies play a critical role in regulating the biological pump by pumping new nutrients to the euphotic zone. However, the effects of cyclonic eddies on particle export are not well understood. Here, biogenic silica BSi and particulate organic carbon POC exports were examined inside and outside a decaying cyclonic eddy using ThU disequilibria in the tropical South China Sea.

For the eddy and outside stations, the average concentrations of BSi in the euphotic zone were 0. The POC concentrations were 1. Based on the ThU model, BSi export fluxes in the eddy averaged 0. Similarly, the average POC export fluxes were 1. From these results we concluded that cyclonic eddies in their decaying phase have little effect on the abundance and export of biogenic particles.

Biogenic amine concentrations and evolution in "chilled" Canadian pork for the Japanese market. The aim of this study was to evaluate concentrations and evolution of biogenic amines in Canadian pork destined for the Japanese market. At 48h post-mortem, export quality loins were aged at Increasing concentrations of putrescine, spermine and spermidine were observed with chilled ageing period and were greater in chilled export 43d at Cadaverine was detected, but was not influenced by ageing conditions, and tyramine was only detected in some samples after 43days at Individual biogenic amines were not correlated with their precursor amino acids.

Biogenic amines in Canadian pork for the chilled export Japanese market were not in sufficiently high concentrations to pose a risk of intoxication. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Sediments were dated using an age model developed from multiple 14C dates on bulk sediments.

The BSi record shows distinct fluctuations in concentration and accumulation rate from 18 to 60 kya. Multi-taper method spectral analysis reveals a significant millennial-scale component to these fluctuations centered at years. High BSi accumulation rates correlate with enhanced benthic diatom preservation, suggesting that the BSi record is related to variations in lake water level.

Modern-day Lake Titicaca lake level and precipitation are strongly related to northern equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperatures, with cooler SSTs related to wetter conditions. Rather, the Lake Titicaca record is highly periodic and more similar in nature to several Antarctic climate proxy records. These results suggest that while South American tropical climate varies in phase with North Atlantic climate, additional forcing mechanisms are manifest in the region which may include tropical Pacific and Southern Ocean variability.

Concentrations of biogenic amines in fish, squid and octopus and their changes during storage. The concentrations of seven biogenic amines BA were simultaneously determined in 74 samples of fish, squid and octopus, by the method of HPLC coupled with pre-column derivatisation. The relationship between the formation of BA in aquatic products and the growth of microbial flora during storage was also investigated. Results showed that putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were the dominant BA in the studied samples, but the concentrations of histamine and tyramine were mostly less than 50 and mgkg -1 , respectively.

Freezing can effectively prevent the formation of BA, but the levels of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine significantly increased p Determination of the size, concentration , and refractive index of silica nanoparticles from turbidity spectra. Here, we describe a method for simultaneous determination of the average size and concentration of silica nanospheres from turbidity spectra measured within the nm spectral band.

Finally, we exemplify our method by determining the particle size and concentration for 10 samples and compare the results with transmission electron microscopy TEM , atomic force microscopy AFM , and dynamic light scattering data. Effects of dietary hexachlorobenzene exposure on regional brain biogenic amine concentrations in mink and European ferrets. In the initial trial, adult mink and ferrets were administered hexachlorobenzene HCB via the feed at concentrations of 1, 5, or 25 ppm for 47 wk.

Animals receiving and ppm HCB in the diet died before termination of the experiment, with female ferrets at the ppm level displaying abnormal aggressiveness and hyperexcitability just prior to death. Hypothalamic serotonin 5-HT was significantly elevated at all dose levels in mink, and cerebellar 5-HT was significantly elevated at 1 ppm in the ferret. Hypothalamic dopamine DA concentrations were significantly depressed by 1 and 5 ppm in these kits.

In a second study, adult male and female ferrets were administered or ppm HCB via the diet for 7 wk. Two animals at the ppm level and 3 animals at the ppm level died before termination of the experiment without showing behavioral changes. Of the remaining animals, 3 ferrets at ppm and 1 ferret at ppm showed slight aggressiveness and hyperexcitability during the last week of the experiment. Concentrations of 5-HT were significantly elevated at ppm in the cerebral hemispheres and at ppm in the midbrain of male ferrets, while in the females, 5-HT was elevated in the cerebral hemispheres at ppm and in the hypothalamus at both and ppm.

Norepinephrine NE concentrations were significantly elevated in the cerebellum of males exposed to and ppm, as were NE concentrations in the midbrain. HCB at ppm caused a significant increase in medullary NE, while ppm caused an increase in hypothalamic NE in males. The only change in regional brain dopamine DA concentrations occurred at ppm HCB in the midbrain of males, where there was a significant elevation of this neurotransmitter. Altering the concentration of silica tunes the functional properties of collagen- silica composite scaffolds to suit various clinical requirements.

The success of a tissue engineering scaffold depends on a fine balance being achieved between the physicochemical and biological properties. This study attempts to understand the influence of silica concentration on the functional properties of collagen- silica CS composite scaffolds for soft tissue engineering applications. Increasing the ratio of silica to collagen 0. With increase in silica concentration the water uptake and compressive modulus increased concurrently, whereas it was not so for surface porous architecture and biocompatibility which are crucial for cell adhesion and infiltration.

Mixed biogenic and hydrothermal quartz in Permian lacustrine shale of Santanghu Basin, NW China: implications for penecontemporaneous transformation of silica minerals. The cycling of various isomorphs of authigenic silica minerals is a complex and long-term process. A special type of composite quartz Qc grains in tuffaceous shale of Permian Lucaogou Formation in the sediment-starved volcanically and hydrothermally active intracontinental lacustrine Santanghu rift basin NW China is studied in detail to demonstrate such processes.

Samples from one well in the central basin were subject to petrographic, elemental chemical, and fluid inclusion analyses. About Qc-bearing laminae are 0. The Qc grains occur as framework grains and are dispersed in igneous feldspar-dominated matrix, suggesting episodic accumulation. Qc grains are composed of a core of anhedral microcrystalline quartz and an outer part of subhedral mega-quartz grains, whose edges are composed of small euhedral quartz crystals, indicating multiple episodic processes of recrystallization and overgrowth.

Abundance of Al and Ti in quartz crystals and estimated temperature from fluid inclusions in Qc grains indicate that processes are related to hydrothermal fluids. Finally, the Qc grains are interpreted as original silica precipitation in microorganism algae?

It is postulated that episodic volcanic and hydrothermal activities had changed lake water chemistry, temperature, and nutrient supply, resulting in variations in microorganic productivities and silica cycling. The transformation of authigenic silica from amorphous to well crystallized had occurred in a short time span during shallow burial.

Impact of the natural Fe-fertilization on the magnitude, stoichiometry and efficiency of particulate biogenic silica , nitrogen and iron export fluxes. Lemaitre, N. The Kerguelen Plateau is characterized by a naturally Fe-fertilized phytoplankton bloom that extends more than km downstream in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. During the KEOPS2 study, in austral spring, we measured particulate nitrogen PN , biogenic silica BSi and particulate iron PFe export fluxes in order to investigate how the natural fertilization impacts the stoichiometry and the magnitude of export fluxes and therefore the efficiency of the biological carbon pump.

At 9 stations, we estimated elemental export fluxes based on element concentration to Th activity ratios for particulate material collected with in-situ pumps and Th export fluxes Planchon et al. This study revealed that the natural Fe-fertilization increased export fluxes but to variable degrees. Export fluxes for the bloom impacted area were compared with those of a high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll HNLC , low-productive reference site located to the south-west of Kerguelen and which had the lowest BSi and PFe export fluxes 2.

The impact of the Fe fertilization was the greatest within a meander of the polar front PF , to the east of Kerguelen, with fluxes reaching 1. A highly productive site above the Kerguelen Plateau, on the contrary, was less impacted by the fertilization with export fluxes reaching 0. Our results suggest that ecosystem features i. Indeed, for the PF meander, the moderate productivity was sustained by the presence of large and strongly silicified diatom species while at the higher productivity sites, smaller and slightly silicified diatoms dominated.

Interestingly, our results suggest that. The effect of concentration in the patterning of silica particles by the soft lithographic technique. Soft lithography provides remarkable surface patterning techniques to organize colloidal particles for a wide variety of applications. In particular, micromolding in capillaries MIMIC has emerged as a patterning method in the nanometer to micrometer scale in a single step by using templating and directing nanoparticles via capillary forces in the channel.

The effect of the concentration of silica particles on the patterning has been investigated. Nitrogen fertilisation increases biogenic amines and amino acid concentrations in Vitis vinifera var. Riesling musts and wines.

Wines rich in biogenic amines can cause adverse health effects to the consumer. Being nitrogen-containing substances, the amount of amines in wines might be strongly influenced by the rate of nitrogen fertiliser application during grape production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation in the vineyard on the formation of biogenic amines in musts and wines. In a field experiment which compared unfertilised and fertilised 60 and kg N ha -1 vines over two separate years, the total amine concentrations in must and wine increased.

The latter was due to an increase of individual amines such as ethylamine, histamine, isopentylamine, phenylethylamine and spermidine in the musts and wines with the nitrogen application. Furthermore, the fermentation process increased the concentration of histamine and ethylamine in most of the treatments, while spermidine, spermine and isopentylamine concentrations generally decreased.

Throughout both vintages, the concentrations of tyramine and histamine of the investigated musts and wines never reached detrimental levels to the health of non-allergenic people. Nitrogen fertilisation has a significant effect on amines formation in musts and wines. Furthermore, during fermentation, ethylamine and histamine increased while other amines were presumably serving as N sources during fermentation.

An inhomogeneous time series of measurements of the percentage content of biogenic silica in the samples of joint cores BDP and BDP from the bottom of Lake Baikal drilled at a depth of m under water has been analyzed. The composite depth of cores is 77 m, which covers the Pleistocene Epoch to 1. For this, the combined spectral periodogram a modification of the spectral analysis method was used. Some of the revealed quasi-harmonics are related to the characteristic cyclical oscillations of the Earth's orbital parameters.

Special focus was payed to the temporal change in the parameters of the revealed quasi-harmonic components over the Pleistocene Epoch, which was studied by constructing the spectral density of the analyzed data in the running window of and kyr. Uranyl adsorption kinetics within silica gel: dependence on flow velocity and concentration.

Trace quantities of a uranyl dissolved in water were measured using a simple optical method. A dilute solution of uranium nitrate dissolved in water was forced through nanoporous silica gel at fixed and controlled water flow rates. The uranyl ions deposited and accumulated within the silica gel and the uranyl fluorescence within the silica gel was monitored as a function of time using a light emitting diode as the excitation source and a photomultiplier tube detector.

It was shown that the response time of the fluorescence output signal at a particular volumetric flow rate or average liquid velocity through the silica gel can be used to quantify the concentration of uranium in water. The response time as a function of concentration decreased with increasing flow velocity. Molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model are used to study the formation mechanism of periodic mesoporous silica over a wide range of cationic surfactant concentrations.

This follows up on an earlier study of systems with low surfactant concentrations. We started by studying the phase diagram of the surfactant—water system and found that our model shows good qualitative agreement with experiments with respect to the surfactant concentrations where various phases appear. We then considered the impact of silicate species upon the morphologies formed.

Upon the addition of silica dimers, a new phase-separated hexagonal array is formed. The preformed liquid crystals were found to be unstable in the presence of monomeric silicates. In addition, the silica dimer is found to be essential for mesoscale ordering at both low and high surfactant concentrations. Our results support the view that a cooperative interaction of anionic silica oligomers and cationic surfactants determines the mesostructure formation in the M41S family of materials.

Effect of catalyst concentration on size, morphology and optical properties of silica nanoparticles. Today, nanomaterials play a key role in various fields such as electronics, aerospace, pharmaceuticals and biomedical because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties which are different from bulk materials.

Nano sized silica particles have gained the prominent position in scientific research and have wide applications. The sol-gel method is the best method to synthesize silica nanoparticles because of its potential to produce monodispersed with narrow size distribution at mild conditions. The silica nanoparticles were obtained by hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate TEOS in ethanol act as solvent. The optical properties and band structure was analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy which is found to be increase by reducing the size of particles.

Concentration effect of catalyst on the size, morphology and optical properties were analyzed. PM4 crystalline silica emission factors and ambient concentrations at aggregate-producing sources in California. This information is needed by industrial facilities to evaluate compliance with the Chronic Reference Exposure Level REL for ambient crystalline silica adopted in by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Control Techniques, P. The results of the tests indicate that PM4 crystalline silica emissions range from 0.

The PM4 crystalline silica emission factors were proportional to the crystalline silica content of the material handled in the process equipment. Measured ambient concentrations ranged from 0 below detectable limit to 2. Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application. Azira, A. The availability of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber ENR-LC has provided a better opportunity for using epoxidised natural rubber ENR with silica to reinforce natural rubber for tyre application.

ENR-LC mixed directly with silica to rubber by high speed stirrer without using any coupling agent. Some rubber compounds were prepared by mixing a large amount of precipitated amorphous white silica with natural rubber. Overall improvement in the mechanical properties for the ENR-LC over the control crosslinked rubber sample was probably due to synergisms of silica reinforcement and crosslinking of the polymeric matrix phase. Compounding was carried out on a two roll mill, where the additives and curing agents was later mixed.

The evaluation and quantification of respirable coal and silica dust concentrations : a task-based approach. Silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis are serious occupational respiratory diseases associated with the coal mining industry and the inhalation of respirable dusts containing crystalline silica. The purpose of this study funded by the Mine Health and Safety Council of South Africa was to evaluate the individual contributions of underground coal mining tasks to the respirable dust and respirable silica dust concentrations in an underground section by sampling the respirable dust concentrations at the intake and return of each task.

The identified tasks were continuous miner CM cutting, construction, transfer of coal, tipping, and roof bolting. Personal exposure levels were determined by sampling the exposures of workers performing tasks in the section. Respirable dust concentrations and low concentrations of respirable silica dust were found at the intake air side of the section, indicating that air entering the section is already contaminated. Dust control methods to lower exposures should include revision of the position of workers with regard to the task performed, positioning of the tasks with regard to the CM cutting, and proper use of the line curtains to direct ventilation appropriately.

The correct use of respiratory protection should also be encouraged. Dissolved silica has been used as a useful indicator of a chemical weathering in many geochemical studies in natural environment. Previous hydrological studies indicated that various hydrological processes affect the dissolution and precipitation of silica in hillslope and transport of this silica to stream; however, information is still limited to link this knowledge to understand geochemical processes.

The observations of dissolved silica concentration in groundwater, spring and stream water was conducted at the unchannelled hillslope in the Tanakami Mountains of central Japan; 1 to clarify the effects of preferential flowpaths including lateral and vertical flow in soil layer and flow through bedrock fracture in the variation of dissolved silica concentration in runoff and groundwater, and 2 to isolate the effects of mixing of water from geochemically diverse water sources on the dissolved silica concentration.

The mean dissolved silica concentrations in soil water at 40 cm depth and transient groundwater formed in upslope area were relatively constant independent of the variation in the new water ratio. The mean dissolved silica concentrations were similar regardless of the sampling depth in soil although the mean residence times of water increase with depth.

These results indicated that dissolved silica concentrations in soil water and transient groundwater were defined almost independent of contact time of water with minerals. While the mean dissolved silica concentration in perennial groundwater, which was recharged by infiltrating water through soil and water emerging from bedrock in a area near to spring, was more than twice that of transient groundwater and the variation was relatively large.

The mean dissolved silica concentration increased significantly at downslope from perennial groundwater, spring to the stream and the spring and stream concentrations also showed large variation. The dissolved silica concentrations of those perennial groundwater. Concentration gradient induced morphology evolution of silica nanostructure growth on photoresist-derived carbon micropatterns.

The evolution of silica nanostructure morphology induced by local Si vapor source concentration gradient has been investigated by a smart design of experiments. Silica nanostructure or their assemblies with different morphologies are obtained on photoresist-derived three-dimensional carbon microelectrode array.

Both vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-quasiliquid-solid growth mechanisms have been applied to explain the diverse morphologies involving branching, connecting, and batch growth behaviors. The present approach offers a potential method for precise design and controlled synthesis of nanostructures with different features.

Gold recovery from low concentrations using nanoporous silica adsorbent. The preliminary studies from laboratory simulated noncyanide gold solutions show that the adsorption capacities of these materials are among the highest reported. The high adsorption saturation level of these materials, up to 1. These rates are significantly higher than the usual Au:S ratio expected for metal ion binding with the material.

The additional gold ions loaded have been spontaneously reduced to metallic gold in the mesoporous material. Experimental studies indicated high maximum adsorptions of gold as high as Another promising attribute of these materials is their favourable adsorption kinetics. The MP-HMS reaches equilibrium saturation in less than 1 minute of exposure in gold bromide and less than 10 minutes in gold chloride.

The recovery of adsorbed gold and the regeneration of spent adsorbent were investigated for MP-HMS adsorbent. The regenerated adsorbent MP-HMS maintained its adsorption capacity even after repeated use and all the gold was successfully recovered from the spent adsorbent.

For the fist time, a promising adsorbent system has been found that is capable of effectively concentrating gold thiosulphate complexes, whereas conventional carbon-inpulp CIP and carbon-in-leach CIL systems fail. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO 2 concentration data.

Verification could include a variety of evidence, but arguably the most convincing verification would be confirmation of a change in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere that is consistent with reported emissions to the UNFCCC. We found that the atmospheric CO2 measurement data did verify the accuracy of the emissions inventory within the confidence limits of the emissions estimates, suggesting that this technology could be further developed and deployed more widely in the future for verifying reported emissions.

Impact of elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from Ginkgo biloba. In natural environment with ambient air, ginkgo trees emitted volatile organic compounds 0. Isoprene and limonene were the most abundant detected compounds. In September, alpha-pinene accounted for Elevated CO 2 concentration in OTCs increased isoprene emission significantly in July p biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions, except increases of isoprene and Delta3-carene in September.

This document provides results of experiments aimed at removing silica from geothermal brines. All experiments were conducted with simulated brines. The data presented shows the effect of iron addition, kinetics, temperature, pH and brine concentration. Seasonal variation of nitrogen oxides, ozone and biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations and fluxes at Norway spruce forest.

Dynamics of nitrogen oxides NOx and ozone concentration and their depositions were investigated on the Norway spruce forest at Bily Kriz experimental station at the Silesian Beskydy Mountains north-eastern part of the Czech Republic. Both NOx and ozone concentration and fluxes were modelled for the whole season and covering thus different climate conditions.

Data were recorded for three consecutive years and therefore deeper analyses were performed. Thus data of different levels of canopies together with different spectra of monoterpenes were obtained. Interesting comparison of both methods will be shown. Other BVOCs than monoterpenes were negligible. Variation of fluxes between different canopies levels was observed, highlighting difference in shaded and sun exposed leaves. Sun leaves emitted up to 2. We discuss here the importance of the most common Norway spruce tree forests in the Czech Republic in bi-directional exchanges of important secondary pollutant such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, their.

Concentrations of biogenic amines in fundal layers in chickens with normal visual experience, deprivation, and after reserpine application. Previous experiments in chickens have shown that dopamine released from the retina may be one of the messengers controlling the growth of the underlying sclera. It is also possible, however, that the apparent relationship between dopamine and myopia is secondary and artifactual. We have done experiments to assess this hypothesis.

Using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with electrochemical detection HPLC-ED , we have asked whether changes in dopamine metabolism are restricted to the local retinal regions in which myopia was locally induced. Finally, we have repeated the deprivation experiments after intravitreal application of the irreversible dopamine re-uptake blocker reserpine to see how suppression of dopaminergic transmission affects these changes.

We found that 1 Alterations in retinal dopamine metabolism were indeed restricted to the retinal areas in which myopia was induced. Vitreal content was about one-tenth, choroidal content about one-third, and scleral content about one-twentieth of that of the retina. The effects of ferrocene concentration on CNT growth on micron silica gel. The growth of CNT on micron size spherical silica gel of high porosity was performed in this work. The concentration of the catalyst used, which was ferrocene, was varied from 1 wt.

Based on these characterizations, it was found that the ferrocene concentration greatly affects the morphology of the obtained CNT; with 1 wt. Biogenic VOC BVOC has comparably large contribution to generation of secondary air pollutants, such as photochemical oxidant or urban aerosol. In this study a BVOC emission inventory in the Kansai area, which is located in the central part of Japan, based on the field observation was developed.

Some validations of the inventory were conducted by estimating the concentration distribution of oxidants with this developed and an existing BVOC emission inventory in Kansai area by meteorological model MM5 and atmospheric chemical transport model CMAQ. In the development of BVOC emission, the vegetation map by the Biodiversity Center of Japan which had been arranged as basic information on natural environmental preservation in a regional standard mesh the third mesh in was used.

In this study isoprene and the mono-terpene were taken up as BVOC. Quercus crispula and Quercus serrata were selected as the source of isoprene, and Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtuse, Quercus phillyraeoides, Pinus densiflora, and Pinus thunbergii were selected as sources of mono-terpene. Please login or sign up. Entire forum. Feb 11, , am. Mobile Main Menu. Digital wallet A digital wallet also known as "e-Wallet" refers to an electronic device,.

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Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles.

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Cheat engine csgodouble betting Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on marta nalazek msw betting or suboptimally on allografts. Thus data of different bitcoinstore facebook sign of canopies together with different spectra of monoterpenes were obtained. In the present study, we report a very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly route for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava Psidium guajava leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Unconventional shallow biogenic gas falls into two distinct systems that have different attributes. The current scientific literature shows no relation between the oral ingestion of biogenic amines and food intolerance reactions. TEM micrograph clearly revealed the size of the AgNPs to be in the range of nm with spherical shape and poly-dispersed nature; it is further confirmed by Particle size analysis that the stability of AgNPs is due its high negative Zeta potential The parameter of the basic emission rate included in the model was decided by arranging the result of the observation in Kansai Research Center of Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in each season.
Marta nalazek msw betting Launched inthe PsyQuation project uses profiling of traders' behavior and sophisticated algorithms that can analyze and give recommendations most promising bitcoins 2021 toyota help improve trading results, as well as more attentively look at trading behavior, eliminate errors and make more profit. The present study investigated the spatial and vertical distribution of organic carbon OCtotal nitrogen TNtotal phosphorus TP and biogenic silica BSi in the sedimentary environments of Asia's largest brackish water lagoon. The results showed that initial dry-cured raw sausage contained 5. The AgNPs were evaluated for electrochemical degradation of bromothymol blue BTB dyes which showed a significant activity. New strategies are required to improve the efficacy of drugs and to treat the emerging microbial resistance. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles. Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies.

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A virus decline of more than 3 log was achieved at a membrane flux of 75 L m -2 h -1 , showing the potential of this membrane technology for water disinfection on small scale. Additive interaction of carbon dots extracted from soluble coffee and biogenic silver nanoparticles against bacteria. It is known the presence of carbon dots CDs in carbohydrate based foods. CDs extracted from coffee grounds and instant coffee was also published. CDs from soluble coffee revealed an average size of 4.

For silver nanoparticles biogenically synthesized was 6. In general, the unfunctionalized CDs showed to be inefficient as antibacterial compounds, however the CDs extracted from Coffee powder and together silver nanoparticles appeared interesting as antibacterial association. Biogenic silver nanoparticles based on trichoderma harzianum: synthesis, characterization, toxicity evaluation and biological activity.

White mold is an agricultural disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which affects important crops. There are different ways of controlling this organism, but none provides inhibition of its resistance structures sclerotia. Nanotechnology offers promising applications in agricultural area. Here, silver nanoparticles were biogenically synthesized using the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and characterized. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated, and the nanoparticles were initially tested against white mold sclerotia.

Their effects on soybean were also investigated with no effects observed. The nanoparticles showed potential against S. Nanoparticle characterization data indicated spherical morphology, satisfactory polydispersity and size distribution. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that the nanoparticles caused both the effects, although, the most toxic concentrations were above those applied for white mold control.

Given the potential of the nanoparticles against S. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava Psidium guajava leaf extract and its antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the various inorganic nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have received substantial attention in the field of antimicrobial research. For safe and biocompatible use of silver nanoparticles in antimicrobial research, the different biogenic routes are developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles that do not use toxic chemicals.

Among those, to synthesize silver nanoparticles, the use of plant part extract becomes an emerging field because plant part acts as reducing as well as capping agent. For large-scale production of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using plant part, the synthesis route should be very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly based on easy availability and non-toxic nature of plant, stability and antibacterial potential of biosynthesized nanoparticles.

In the present study, we report a very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly route for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava Psidium guajava leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. This plant has been opted for the present study for its known medicinal properties, and it is easily available in all seasons and everywhere. The average particle size is 40 nm in the range of nm.

The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC has been measured by disc diffusion method, agar cup assay and serial dilution turbidity measurement assay. The results show that green synthesized silver nanoparticles, using guava Psidium guajava leaf extract, have a potential to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Silver nanoparticles AgNPs have been broadly used as antibacterial and antiviral agents.

Further, interests for green AgNP synthesis have increased in recent years and several results for AgNP biological synthesis have been reported using bacteria, fungi and plant extracts. The understanding of the role and nature of fungal proteins, their interaction with AgNPs and the subsequent stabilization of nanosilver is yet to be deeply investigated.

Therefore, in an attempt to better understand biogenic AgNP stabilization with the extracellular fungal proteins and to describe these supramolecular interactions between proteins and silver nanoparticles, AgNPs, produced extracellularly by Aspergillus tubingensis—isolated as an endophytic fungus from Rizophora mangle—were characterized in order to study their physical characteristics, identify the involved proteins, and shed light into the interactions among protein-NPs by several techniques.

Observed supramolecular interactions also occur by electrostatic and other protein-protein interactions. FTIR results enabled us to state that proteins adsorbed to the AgNPs did not suffer relevant secondary structure alteration upon. Eco-friendly decoration of graphene oxide with biogenic silver nanoparticles: antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. This work reports on preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of graphene oxide GO decorated with biogenic silver nanoparticles Bio-AgNPs produced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

The antibacterial activity of the Bio-GOAg nanocomposite against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms was investigated and a very promising result was found for the Gram-negative strains. In addition, the Bio-GOAg nanocomposite displayed a very strong biocidal activity against the Salmonella typhimurium strain at a concentration of 2. The antibiofilm activity toward S.

Biogenic synthesis, optimisation and antibacterial efficacy of extracellular silver nanoparticles using novel fungal isolate Aspergillus fumigatus MA. To eliminate the elaborate processes employed in other non-biological-based protocols and low cost production of silver nanoparticles AgNPs , this study reports biogenic synthesis of AgNPs using silver salt precursor with aqueous extract of Aspergillus fumigates MA.

Influence of silver precursor concentrations, concentration ratio of fungal extract and silver nitrate, contact time, reaction temperature and pH are evaluated to find their effects on AgNPs synthesis. Ultraviolet-visible spectra gave surface plasmon resonance at nm for AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques further confirmed the synthesis and crystalline nature of AgNPs, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy observed spherical shapes of synthesised AgNPs within the range of nm.

The AgNPs showed potent antimicrobial efficacy against various bacterial strains. Thus, the results of the current study indicate that optimisation process plays a pivotal role in the AgNPs synthesis and biogenic synthesised AgNPs might be used against bacterial pathogens; however, it necessitates clinical studies to find out their potential as antibacterial agents. Paederia foetida Linn. Development of newer improved therapeutic agents with efficient antimicrobial activities continues to draw attention of researchers till date.

Moreover, abatement of polluting dyes released from industry with enhanced efficiency is currently being considered as challenging task for people working on material sciences. In the present study, we report a facile biogenic synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles NPs in which aqueous extracts of Paederia foetida Linn.

The photocatalytic activity of these nanoparticles were tested against Rhodamine B RhB. The antimicrobial activity of these biosynthesized NPs were investigated against four human pathogens viz. Biogenic silver nanoparticles presented a strong antimicrobial activity against B.

Ag NPs owing to their small size nm could have easily penetrate into the cell membrane, disturb the metabolism, cause irretrievable damage finally leading to the microbial cell death. Interestingly biogenic gold nanoparticles didn't show any antimicrobial activity. The deep-sea manganese-oxidizing bacterium Marinobacter sp.

The main aim of this study was to develop effective methods for adsorbing and recovering Ag using BMO produced by Marinobacter sp. In addition, the adsorption mechanism was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, specific surface area analysis, adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that Desorption using nitric acid and Na2S completely recovered the Ag. Biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized using red ginseng root extract, and their applications.

In the present study, we report a green methodology for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles, using the root extract of the herbal medicinal plant Korean red ginseng. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized within 1 h and 10 min respectively. The nanoparticles generated were not aggregated, and remained stable for a long time, which suggests the nature of nanoparticles. The phytochemicals and ginsenosides present in the root extract assist in reducing and stabilizing the synthesized nanoparticles.

The red ginseng root extract-generated silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibit biofilm degrading activity against S. Thus, the present study opens up a new possibility of synthesizing silver and gold nanoparticles in a green and rapid manner using Korean red ginseng root extract, and explores their biomedical applications.

Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by leaf extract of Cassia angustifolia. In this study Cassia angustifolia senna is used for the environmentally friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles having symmetric surface plasmon resonance SPR band centred at nm were obtained within 10 min at room temperature by treating aqueous solutions of silver nitrate with C. The water soluble components from the leaves, probably the sennosides, served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

The nanoparticles were poly-dispersed, spherical in shape with particle size in the range nm, the average size was found to be The zeta potential was The crystalline phase of the nanoparticles was confirmed from the selected area diffraction pattern SAED. The rate of formation and size of silver nanoparticles were pH dependent. Functional groups responsible for capping of silver nanoparticles were identified from the FTIR spectrum.

The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Trichoderma koningii assisted biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their antibacterial activity.

Tripathi, R. The present study demonstrates the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Trichoderma koningii and evaluation of their antibacterial activity. Trichoderma koningii secretes proteins and enzymes that act as reducing and capping agent. UV-Vis spectra showed absorbance peak at nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. DLS was used to find out the size distribution profile. The size and morphology of the AgNPs was determined by TEM, which shows the formation of spherical nanoparticles in the size range of nm.

X-ray diffraction showed intense peaks corresponding to the crystalline silver. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs was evaluated by growth curve and inhibition zone and it was found that the AgNPs show potential effective antibacterial activity. Fabrication of biogenic antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE as eco-friendly nanofactory. The current research was focused on the extracellular biosynthesis of bactericidal silver nanoparticles AgNPs using cell-free supernatant of a local isolate previously identified as a novel Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE was quite fast and required far less time than previously published strains.

The produced particles showed a single surface plasmon resonance peak at nm by UV-Vis spectroscopy, which confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Response surface methodology was chosen to evaluate the effects of four process variables AgNO3 concentration, incubation period, pH levels, and inoculum size on the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE Statistical analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic effects of incubation period, initial pH, and inoculum size had a significant effect p silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE The maximum silver nanoparticles biosynthesis 2.

An overall 4-fold increase in AgNPs biosynthesis was obtained as compared with that of unoptimized conditions. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-VIS spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, in addition to antimicrobial properties.

The biosynthesized AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of medically important pathogenic gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast Candida albicans. Physicochemical investigations of biogenic chitosan- silver nanocomposite as antimicrobial and anticancer agent. Chitosan CS , a seaweed polysaccharide is a natural macromolecule which is widely being used in medical applications because of its distinctive antimicrobial and anticancer properties.

Silver , a noble metal, is also receiving wide attention for its potential usage in antimicrobial and anticancer therapeutics. In this study, an effective way of reduction of silver using chitosan at varying reaction temperatures and an optimised concentration of silver were performed.

The optical, structural, spectral, morphological and elemental studies of the biosynthesized chitosan- silver CS-Ag nanocomposites were characterized by several techniques. The synthesized CS-Ag nanocomposites exhibit particle size around 20nm and were further exploited for potent biological applications in nanomedicine due to their nanometric sizes and biocompatibility of chitosan.

The antimicrobial activity of the biosynthesized CS-Ag nanocomposites exhibits zone of inhibition ranged between The synergistic effect of chitosan and silver as a composite in nanometric size revealed significant IC 50 value of Utilization of biogenic tea waste silver nanoparticles for the reduction of organic dyes.

Eco-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles is the need of the society today. Present study has been undertaken to investigate the greener approach for the preparation of medicinally and chemically important nanoparticles. Tea waste has been taken to synthesis silver nanoparticles.

The nanoparticles are characterized by x-ray Diffraction, and Transmission Emission Microscopy studies. The particle size varied from 2 to 34 nm. These silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their reducing activity against four organic dyes viz crystal violet, methylene blue, Congo red and brilliant green. The particles exhibited good catalytic activity against crystal violet, methylene blue and brilliant green but no activity was visible for Congo red.

Furthermore, AgNPs shows very promising and prominent antioxidant activity. Biogenic silver nanoparticles using Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf extract: synthesis, spectral analysis, and antimicrobial studies. Nanotechnology is gaining momentum due to its ability to transform metals into nanoparticles. The synthesis, characterization, and applications of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an important branch of nanotechnology.

Plant extracts are a cost-effective, ecologically friendly, and efficient alternative for the large-scale synthesis of nanoparticles. In this study, silver nanoparticles AgNps were synthesized using Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf extract.

After exposing the silver ions to the leaf extract, the rapid reduction of silver ions led to the formation of AgNps in solution. The synthesis was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the AgNps synthesized using R. The AgNps showed potential activity against all of the bacterial strains and fungal colonies, indicating that R.

The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials are an important aspect in nanotechnology. The present study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles Ag-NPs using the aqueous extract of red seaweed Gelidiella acerosa as the reducing agent to study the antifungal activity. The synthesized Ag-NPs was predominately spherical in shape and polydispersed. Fourier Transform Infra-Red FT-IR spectroscopy analysis showed that the synthesized nano-Ag was capped with bimolecular compounds which are responsible for reduction of silver ions.

The present study indicates that Ag-NPs have considerable antifungal activity in comparison with standard antifungal drug, and hence further investigation for clinical applications is necessary. Tailoring shape and size of biogenic silver nanoparticles to enhance antimicrobial efficacy against MDR bacteria. Spherical, rectangular, penta, and hexagonal silver nanoparticles of different dimensions were biosynthesized in an eco-friendly manner by biocontrol agent, Trichoderma viride by manipulating physical parameters, pH, temperature, and reaction time.

Shape and size dependent antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles against human pathogens was observed. Nanoparticles of different geometry and dimension established enhanced antagonistic activity against pathogens with all the tested antibiotics. Shape and size played major role in enhancing antimicrobial potential of silver nanoparticles, both singly and synergistically with antibiotics which can be exploited to combat the spread of multidrug resistant pathogens. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Size controlled biogenic silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agent against isolates from HIV infected patients.

Suganya, K. Uma; Govindaraju, K. Ganesh; Dhas, T. Stalin; Karthick, V. Silver nanoparticles AgNPs are synthesized using biological sources due to its high specificity in biomedical applications. Herein, we report the size and shape controlled synthesis of AgNPs using the aqueous extract of blue green alga, Spirulina platensis.

AgNPs were stable, well defined and monodispersed spherical with an average size of 6 nm. Biogenic nano-scale silver particles by Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract and their inborn antimicrobial activity. In this paper we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles Ag NPs using Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract. The biomolecules present in the leaf extract are responsible for the formation of Ag NPs and they found to play dual role of both reducing as well as capping agents.

FTIR spectrum evidences the presence of different functional groups of biomolecules participated in encapsulating Ag NPs and the possible mechanism of Ag NPs formation was also suggested. PL spectra showed decrement in luminescence intensity at higher excitation wavelengths.

Antimicrobial activity of Ag NPs showed better inhibitory activity towards Pseudomonas spp. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Nanomedicine utilizes biocompatible nanomaterials for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The present study reports the use of Helicteres isora root extract for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles AgNPs.

The synthesized AgNPs were initially noticed through visual color change from yellow to reddish brown and further confirmed by surface plasmonic resonance SPR band at nm using UV-visible spectroscopy. The prolonged stability of AgNPs was due to capping of oxidized polyphenols and carboxyl protein which was established by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR study.

In addition, the synthesized AgNPs were tested for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. It showed good antioxidant activity as compared to butylated hydroxytoluene BHT and ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. It could be concluded that H.

Activity study of biogenic spherical silver nanoparticles towards microbes and oxidants. The eco-friendly approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles SNP using Terminalia bellirica T. Initially formation of SNP was noticed through visual color change from yellow to reddish brown and further analyzed by surface plasmonic resonance SPR band at nm using UV-Vis spectroscopy.

Identification of different polyphenols present in T. Aqueous T. It was established by analyses of extracts before and after reduction using HPLC. In addition, the synthesized SNP was tested for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. SNP showed good antimicrobial activity against both gram positive S. It also showed good antioxidant activity compared to ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant by using standard DPPH method.

Biogenic synthesis and spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles in the legume mungbean plant Vigna radiata L. Transmission electron micrographs showed the spatial distribution of AgNPs in the chloroplast, cytoplasmic spaces, vacuolar and nucleolar plant regions. In conclusion, synthesis of AgNPs in V. Spectroscopy investigation on chemo-catalytic, free radical scavenging and bactericidal properties of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Salicornia brachiata aqueous extract.

Nanosized silver have been widely used in many applications, such as catalysis, photonics, sensors, medicine etc. Thus, there is an increasing need to develop high-yield, low cost, non-toxic and eco-friendly procedures for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Herein, we report an efficient, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles utilizing the aqueous extract of Salicornia brachiata, a tropical plant of the Chenopodiaceae family.

Silver nanoparticles have been characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphology of the particles formed consists of highly diversified shapes like spherical, rod-like, prism, triangular, pentagonal and hexagonal pattern.

However, addition of sodium hydroxide to the extract produces mostly spherical particles. The stable nanoparticles obtained using this green method show remarkable catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol. The reduction catalyzed by silver nanoparticles followed the first-order kinetics, with a rate constant of, 0. The bactericidal activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles against the pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus E, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, was also explored using REMA.

The obtained results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration required to induce bactericidal effect is lower than the control antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. In addition to these, the biogenic synthesized nanoparticles also exhibited excellent free radical scavenging activity.

Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticle by using secondary metabolites from Pseudomonas aeruginosa DM1 and its anti-algal effect on Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles AgNPs using extracellular metabolites from the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa DM1 offers an eco-friendly and sustainable way of metal nanoparticle synthesis.

The present work highlights the biotransformation of silver nitrate solution into AgNP, mediated by extracellular secondary metabolite pyoverdine, a siderophore produced by P. The energy-dispersive X-ray EDX analysis of particles provided strong signal of elemental silver with few minor peaks of other impurities.

The present approach offers a unique in vitro method of metal nanoparticle synthesis by exogenously produced bacterial secondary metabolites, where direct contact between the toxic metal and biological resource material can be avoided. The biologically synthesized AgNPs are found to have anti-algal effects against two species of Chlorella Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyenoidosa , as indicated by zone of growth inhibition on algal culture plates.

Further results exhibit concentration-dependent progressive inhibition of chlorophyll content in the algal cells by AgNPs, confirming the algicidal effect of AgNPs. In the present research work a novel, nontoxic and ecofriendly procedure was developed for the green synthesis of silver nano particle AgNPs using Caruluma edulis C. The small and spherical sizes of AgNPs were conformed from high resolution transmission electron microscopy HRTEM analysis and were found in the range of nm, which were highly dispersion without any aggregation.

The potential electrochemical property of modified silver electrode was also studied. High cell constituents' release was exhibited by B. Silver nanoparticles also showed significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This research would have an important implication for the synthesis of more efficient antimicrobial and antioxidant agent. The AgNPs were evaluated for electrochemical degradation of bromothymol blue BTB dyes which showed a significant activity.

From the strong reductive properties it is obvious that AgNPs can be used in water sanitization and converting some organic perilous in to non-hazardous materials. The AgNPs showed potential applications in the field of electro chemistry, sensor, catalyst, nano-devices and medical. Biogenic synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Indoneesiella echioides: in vitro assessment on antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity potential.

Natural synthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining more attention in recent years. This article demonstrates the phytochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles AgNPs by using Indoneesiella echioides L leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Biosynthesis of AgNPs was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy which revealed intense surface plasmon resonance bands at nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR and X-ray diffraction were employed to identify various functional groups and crystalline nature of AgNPs.

The antimicrobial activity of green AgNPs displayed better zone of inhibition against selected human pathogens. Herein, we propose a previously unexplored medicinal plant for the biological synthesis of AgNPs with potent biomedical applications. In vivo bio-distribution, clearance and toxicity assessment of biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized from Abutilon indicum in Wistar rats.

While the rats treated with higher dose of AIAgNPs showed mild liver sinusoid cell swelling on day 29, which also was recovered on day Findings of this preclinical study indicate biocompatible nature of biogenic nanoparticles supporting their future biomedical applications. Evaluation of antibacterial properties on polysulfone composite membranes using synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles with Ulva compressa L.

Initially green synthesis of Ag-NPs was accomplished utilizing green macro algae i. Bacterial growth was monitored for 17h with a temperature controlled microplate spectrophotometer. The kinetics of the outgrowth in each well were recorded continuously at nm every 60min.

Thus present work remarkably offers a feasible, cheap and efficient alternative for making Ag-NPs and their utilization as antimicrobial agent on the PS composite membrane. Biogenic nanomaterials from photosynthetic microorganisms. The use of algal cell cultures represents a sustainable and environmentally friendly platform for the biogenic production of nanobiomaterials and biocatalysts.

The in vivo functionalization, as well as newly demonstrated methods of production and modification, of biogenic diatom biosilica have led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid catalytic systems as well as new biomaterials for drug delivery, biosensors and heavy-metal adsorbents. Green synthesis of biogenic silver nanoparticles using Solanum tuberosum extract and their interaction with human serum albumin: Evidence of "corona" formation through a multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking analysis.

Biogenic silver nanoparticles AgNPs have been synthesized by using Solanum tuberosum potato extract PE as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent which is reasonably cheaper, non-toxic and easily available material. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out by very simple method and the nanoparticles were characterized by surface plasmon band as well as TEM measurements.

The PE-AgNPs were highly dispersed in the solution and found to be spherical with around 10nm in size. Due to the strong absorption of PE-AgNPs, the inner filter effect was corrected for the fluorescence data. PE-AgNPs were found to quench the fluorescence of HSA with a small blue shift attributed to the increase in the hydrophobicity near tryptophan residue due to the presence of amylopectin and amylose units in the starch.

Several parameters such as Stern-Volmer and binding constants in addition to the thermodynamic parameters have been analyzed and discussed which established that the complex formation has taken place via static quenching mechanism and the corona formation between albumin and PE-AgNPs was entropy driven process. Biogenic Emission Sources. Biogenic emissions sources come from natural sources and need to accounted for in photochemical grid models. They are computed using a model which utilizes spatial information on vegetation and land use.

Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Piper betle aqueous extract and evaluation of its anti-quorum sensing and antibiofilm potential against uropathogens with cytotoxic effects: an in vitro and in vivo approach. Urinary tract infections are the utmost common bacterial infections caused by Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Serratia marcescens.

These uropathogens resist the action of several antibiotics due to their ability to form biofilms. Most of these bacterial pathogens use the quorum sensing QS machinery to co-ordinate their cells and regulate several virulence factors and biofilm formation. On the other hand, the anti-quorum sensing anti-QS and antibiofilm potential of silver nanoparticles have been well reported against certain bacterial pathogens, but to the best of our knowledge, no report is available against the pathogenicity of uropathogens in particular S.

Therefore, the present study is primarily focused on the anti-QS and antibiofilm potential of Piper betle-based synthesized silver nanoparticles PbAgNPs against S. Initially, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the aqueous extract of P. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were assessed for their anti-QS activity and the obtained results revealed that the PbAgNPs inhibited the QS-mediated virulence factors such as prodigiosin, protease, biofilm formation, exopolysaccharides and hydrophobicity productions in uropathogens.

The in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans assays revealed the non-toxic and anti-adherence efficiency of PbAgNPs. Furthermore, the non-toxic effect of PbAgNPs was also confirmed through peripheral blood mononuclear cells and normal lung epithelial cells. Therefore, the contemporary study demonstrates the use of PbAgNPs as a possible alternative toward conventional antibiotics in controlling QS and biofilm-related uropathogen infections.

The Moon: Biogenic elements. The specific objectives of the organic chemical exploration of the Moon involve the search for molecules of possible biological or prebiological origin. Detailed knowledge of the amount, distribution, and exact structure of organic compounds present on the Moon is extremely important to our understanding of the origin and history of the Moon and to its relationship to the history of the Earth and solar system. Specifically, such knowledge is essential for determining whether life on the Moon exists, ever did exist, or could develop.

In the absence of life or organic matter, it is still essential to determine the abundance, distribution, and origin of the biogenic elements e. The history and scope of this effort is presented. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale.

Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of kg CO2 and 2. Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. Biogenic Hydrocarbons, such as isoprene, are important trace gas species that are naturally emitted by vegetation and that affect the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere.

Biogenic emissions are regulated by many environmental variables; the most important variables are thought to be temperature and light. Long-term isoprene flux measurements are useful for verifying existing canopy models and exploring other correlations between isoprene fluxes and environmental parameters. Biogenic Emission Models, such as BEIS Biogenic Emission Inventory System rely on above canopy environmental parameters and below canopy scaling factors to estimate canopy scale biogenic hydrocarbon fluxes.

Other models, which are more complex, are coupled micrometeorological and physiological modules that provide feedback mechanisms present in a canopy environment. These types of models can predict biogenic emissions well, however, the required input is extensive, and for regional applications, they can be cumbersome. The goals of this research were to explore a potential relationship between the surface energy budget primarily sensible heat flux and isoprene emissions.

Our hypothesis is that the surface energy flux is a better model parameter for isoprene emissions at the canopy scale than temperature and light levels, and the link to the surface energy budget will provide a significant improvement in isoprene emission models. Since surface energy budgets are an integral part of mesoscale meteorological models, this. Study on biogenic amines in various dry salted fish consumed in China. This study was carried out to investigate the biogenic amines BAs , physicochemical property and microorganisms in dry salted fish, a traditional aquatic food consumed in China.

Forty three samples of dry salted fish were gathered from retail and wholesale markets and manufacturers, which had been produced in various regions in China. The highest histamine content was found in Silver pomfret Pampus argenteus Five of forty three samples exceeded the acceptable content of TYR mg kg-1 , and In addition, species, regions, pickling processes and drying methods made the physicochemical property, microorganisms and biogenic amines in dry salted fish to be different to some extents.

The total plate count TPC was much higher than that of total halophilic bacteria in all samples. The biogenic amines, physicochemical property and microbiological counts exhibited large variations among samples. Furthermore, no significant correlation between biogenic amines and physicochemical property and TPC was observed. This study indicated that dry salted fish may still present healthy risk for BAs, depending on the processing methods, storage conditions among others.

This presentation will review how existing and future applications of satellite imagery can improve the accuracy of biogenic emission estimates. Existing applications of satellite imagery to biogenic emission estimates have focused on characterizing land cover.

Vegetation dat A pilot study was conducted to determine whether techniques for measuring biogenic emissions from tree saplings, branches, and leaves could be adapted to the measurement of biogenic emissions from individual plants of agricultural species. We intend to develop new prognostic models for the prediction of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from forest ecosystems in the face of possible future changes in the climate and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

These models will b Silver Nanoparticles. Khaydarov, R. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles obtained by a novel electrochemical method on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium phoeniceum cultures has been studied. The paper also provides a review of scientific literature with regard to recent developments in the field of toxicity of silver nanoparticles and its effect on environment and human health.

Linking biogenic hydrocarbons to biogenic aerosol in the Borneo rainforest. Hamilton, J. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are though to contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation in the tropics, but understanding these transformation processes has proved difficult, due to the complexity of the chemistry involved and very low concentrations. Aerosols from above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest in Borneo were characterised using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry, high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry FTICRMS techniques.

Oxygenated compounds were identified in ambient organic aerosol that could be directly traced back to isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpene emissions, by combining field data on chemical structures with mass spectral data generated from synthetically produced products created in a simulation chamber.

The observations provide the unambiguous field detection of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oxidation products in SOA above a pristine tropical rainforest. The presence of 2-methyl tetrol organosulfates and an associated sulfated dimer provides direct evidence that isoprene in the presence of sulfate aerosol can make a contribution to biogenic organic aerosol above tropical forests. High-resolution mass spectrometry indicates that sulfur can also be incorporated into oxidation products arising from monoterpene precursors in tropical aerosol.

Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are though to contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation in the tropics, but understanding the process of these transformations has proved difficult, due to the complexity of the chemistry involved and very low concentrations. Aerosols from above a South East Asian tropical rainforest in Borneo were characterised using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry, high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry and fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry FTICRMS techniques.

The presence of 2-methyltetrol organosulfates and an associated sulfated dimer provides direct evidence that isoprene in the presence of sulfate aerosol can make a contribution to biogenic organic aerosol above tropical forests. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil. There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization.

Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization.

FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification.

The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus inhibition zone - 12 mm and Gram negative, Escherichia coli inhibition zone - 14 mm is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

Unconventional shallow biogenic gas systems. Unconventional shallow biogenic gas falls into two distinct systems that have different attributes. Early-generation systems have blanketlike geometries, and gas generation begins soon after deposition of reservoir and source rocks.

Late-generation systems have ringlike geometries, and long time intervals separate deposition of reservoir and source rocks from gas generation. For both types of systems, the gas is dominantly methane and is associated with source rocks that are not thermally mature. Early-generation biogenic gas systems are typified by production from low-permeability Cretaceous rocks in the northern Great Plains of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Montana.

The main area of production is on the southeastern margin of the Alberta basin and the northwestern margin of the Williston basin. The huge volume of Cretaceous rocks has a generalized regional pattern of thick, non-marine, coarse clastics to the west and thinner, finer grained marine lithologies to the east. Reservoir rocks in the lower part tend to be finer grained and have lower porosity and permeability than those in the upper part.

Similarly, source beds in the units have higher values of total organic carbon. Patterns of erosion, deposition, deformation, and production in both the upper and lower units are related to the geometry of lineament-bounded basement blocks. Geochemical studies show that gas and coproduced water are in equilibrium and that the fluids are relatively old, namely, as much as 66 Ma.

Other examples of early-generation systems include Cretaceous clastic reservoirs on the southwestern margin of Williston basin and chalks on the eastern margin of the Denver basin. Late-generation biogenic gas systems have as an archetype the Devonian Antrim Shale on the northern margin of the Michigan basin. Reservoir rocks are fractured, organic-rich black shales that also serve as source rocks.

Although fractures are important for production, the relationships to specific geologic structures are. This revision of the report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide Silver cyanide. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity has gained a lot of momentum making it an urgent need to search for a suitable biocandidate which could be utilized for efficient capping and shaping of silver nanoparticles with enhanced bactericidal activity utilizing its secondary metabolites.

Current work illustrates the enhancement of antimicrobial efficacy of silver nanoparticles by reducing and modifying their surface with antimicrobial metabolites of cell free filtrate of Trichoderma viride MTCC in comparison to citrate stabilized silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized by visual observations, UV-visible spectroscopy, zetasizer, and transmission electron microscopy TEM. Synthesized particles were monodispersed, spherical in shape and nm in size.

The antimicrobial activity of both silver nanoparticles was tested against Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus Gram-positive by growth inhibition curve analysis and colony formation unit assay. Further, it was noted that internalization of biosynthesized nanoparticles inside the bacterial cell was much higher as compared to citrate stabilized particles which in turn lead to higher production of reactive oxygen species.

Thus, study reveals that biologically synthesized silver nanoarchitecture coated with antimicrobial metabolites of T. Virus Removal by Biogenic Cerium. This study reports on an innovative strategy for virus removal in drinking water by the combination of Ce III on a bacterial carrier matrix. X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicated that Ce remained in its trivalent state on the bacterial surface.

In disinfection assays using a bacteriophage as model, it was demonstrated that bio-Ce exhibited antiviral properties. Magnetite biomineralization is a genetically-controlled biochemical process through which organisms make perfect ferrimagnetic crystals, usually of single magnetic domain size. This process is an ancient one, having evolved about 2 billion years ago in the magnetotactic bacteria, and presumably was incorporated in the genome of higher organisms, including humans.

During this time, DNA replication, protein synthesis, and many other biochemical processes have functioned in the presence of strong static fields of up to mT adjacent to these magnetosomes without any obvious deleterious effects. Recent behavioral experiments using short but strong magnetic pulses in honeybees and birds demonstrates that ferromagnetic materials are involved in the sensory transduction of geomagnetic field information to the nervous system, and both behavioral and direct electrophysiological experiments indicate sensitivity thresholds to DC magnetic fields down to a few nT.

However, far more biogenic magnetite is present in animal tissues than is needed for magnetoreception, and the biological function of this extra material is unknown. The presence of ferromagnetic materials in biological systems could provide physical transduction mechanisms for ELF magnetic fields, as well for microwave radiation in the. Elucidation of the cellular ultrastructure and biological function s of magnetite might help resolve the question of whether anthropogenic EMFs can cause deleterious biological effects.

Isatis tinctoria mediated synthesis of amphotericin B-bound silver nanoparticles with enhanced photoinduced antileishmanial activity: A novel green approach. After malaria, Leishmaniasis is the most prevalent infectious disease in terms of fatality and geographical distribution. The availability of a limited number of antileishmanial agents, emerging resistance to the available drugs, and the high cost of treatment complicate the treatment of leishmaniasis.

To overcome these issues, critical research for new therapeutic agents with enhanced antileishmanial potential and low treatment cost is needed. Phytochemicals from the aqueous extract of Isatis tinctoria were used as reducing and capping agents to prepare silver nanoparticles. Amphotericin B was successfully adsorbed on the surface of biogenic silver nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques.

UV-Visible spectroscopy was employed to detect the characteristic localized surface plasmon resonance peaks LSPR for the prepared nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy TEM and dynamic light scattering DLS studies revealed the formation of spherical silver nanoparticles with an average particle size of nm.

The cubic crystalline structure of the prepared nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction XRD study. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that plant polyphenolic compounds are mainly involved in metal reduction and capping. Under visible light irradiation, biogenic silver nanoparticles exhibited significant activity against Leishmania tropica with an IC50 value of 4.

In conclusion, the findings of this study reveal that adsorption of amphotericin B, an antileishmanial drug, to biogenic silver nanoparticles, could be a safe, more effective and economic alternative to the available. A Darwinian mechanism for biogenic ocean mixing. Recent observations of biogenic turbulence in the ocean have led to conflicting ideas regarding the contribution of animal swimming to ocean mixing.

Previous measurements indicate elevated turbulent dissipation in the vicinity of large populations of planktonic animals swimming in concert. However, elevated turbulent dissipation is by itself insufficient proof of substantial biogenic mixing. We conducted field measurements of mixing efficiency by individual Mastigias sp.

These measurements revealed another mechanism that contributes to animal mixing besides wake turbulence. This mechanism was first described by Sir Charles Galton Darwin and is in fact the dominant mechanism of mixing by swimming animals. The efficiency of Darwin's mechanism or drift is dependent on animal shape rather than fluid length scale and, unlike turbulent wake mixing, is enhanced by the fluid viscosity.

Therefore, it provides a means of biogenic mixing that can be equally effective in small plankton and large mammals. The ABAG biogenic emissions inventory project. Ozone, which is produced when nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons combine in the presence of sunlight, is a primary factor in air quality planning.

In investigating the role of biogenic emissions, this project employed a pre-existing land cover classification to define areal extent of land cover types. Emission factors were then derived for those cover types. The land cover data and emission factors were integrated into an existing geographic information system, where they were combined to form a Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emissions Inventory. The emissions inventory information was then integrated into an existing photochemical dispersion model.

In this study, the mechanism and ubiquity of organosulfate formation in biogenic SOA is investigated by a comprehensive seri Biogenic barite preciptiation at micromolar ambient sulfate. Earth's early oceans were essentially devoid of sulfate, yet barium sulfate barite deposits are common to ancient sediments. We tested whether biogenic barite could indeed precipitate at trace sulfate by examining the particulate multi-element and Ba-isotopic geochemistry of one of the largest trace-sulfate ecosystems on Earth: Lake Superior.

Altering the concentration of silica tunes the functional properties of collagen- silica composite scaffolds to suit various clinical requirements. The success of a tissue engineering scaffold depends on a fine balance being achieved between the physicochemical and biological properties. This study attempts to understand the influence of silica concentration on the functional properties of collagen- silica CS composite scaffolds for soft tissue engineering applications.

Increasing the ratio of silica to collagen 0. With increase in silica concentration the water uptake and compressive modulus increased concurrently, whereas it was not so for surface porous architecture and biocompatibility which are crucial for cell adhesion and infiltration. Mixed biogenic and hydrothermal quartz in Permian lacustrine shale of Santanghu Basin, NW China: implications for penecontemporaneous transformation of silica minerals.

The cycling of various isomorphs of authigenic silica minerals is a complex and long-term process. A special type of composite quartz Qc grains in tuffaceous shale of Permian Lucaogou Formation in the sediment-starved volcanically and hydrothermally active intracontinental lacustrine Santanghu rift basin NW China is studied in detail to demonstrate such processes.

Samples from one well in the central basin were subject to petrographic, elemental chemical, and fluid inclusion analyses. About Qc-bearing laminae are 0. The Qc grains occur as framework grains and are dispersed in igneous feldspar-dominated matrix, suggesting episodic accumulation. Qc grains are composed of a core of anhedral microcrystalline quartz and an outer part of subhedral mega-quartz grains, whose edges are composed of small euhedral quartz crystals, indicating multiple episodic processes of recrystallization and overgrowth.

Abundance of Al and Ti in quartz crystals and estimated temperature from fluid inclusions in Qc grains indicate that processes are related to hydrothermal fluids. Finally, the Qc grains are interpreted as original silica precipitation in microorganism algae? It is postulated that episodic volcanic and hydrothermal activities had changed lake water chemistry, temperature, and nutrient supply, resulting in variations in microorganic productivities and silica cycling.

The transformation of authigenic silica from amorphous to well crystallized had occurred in a short time span during shallow burial. Impact of the natural Fe-fertilization on the magnitude, stoichiometry and efficiency of particulate biogenic silica , nitrogen and iron export fluxes. Lemaitre, N. The Kerguelen Plateau is characterized by a naturally Fe-fertilized phytoplankton bloom that extends more than km downstream in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

During the KEOPS2 study, in austral spring, we measured particulate nitrogen PN , biogenic silica BSi and particulate iron PFe export fluxes in order to investigate how the natural fertilization impacts the stoichiometry and the magnitude of export fluxes and therefore the efficiency of the biological carbon pump. At 9 stations, we estimated elemental export fluxes based on element concentration to Th activity ratios for particulate material collected with in-situ pumps and Th export fluxes Planchon et al.

This study revealed that the natural Fe-fertilization increased export fluxes but to variable degrees. Export fluxes for the bloom impacted area were compared with those of a high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll HNLC , low-productive reference site located to the south-west of Kerguelen and which had the lowest BSi and PFe export fluxes 2. The impact of the Fe fertilization was the greatest within a meander of the polar front PF , to the east of Kerguelen, with fluxes reaching 1.

A highly productive site above the Kerguelen Plateau, on the contrary, was less impacted by the fertilization with export fluxes reaching 0. Our results suggest that ecosystem features i. Indeed, for the PF meander, the moderate productivity was sustained by the presence of large and strongly silicified diatom species while at the higher productivity sites, smaller and slightly silicified diatoms dominated.

Interestingly, our results suggest that. The effect of concentration in the patterning of silica particles by the soft lithographic technique. Soft lithography provides remarkable surface patterning techniques to organize colloidal particles for a wide variety of applications.

In particular, micromolding in capillaries MIMIC has emerged as a patterning method in the nanometer to micrometer scale in a single step by using templating and directing nanoparticles via capillary forces in the channel. The effect of the concentration of silica particles on the patterning has been investigated. Nitrogen fertilisation increases biogenic amines and amino acid concentrations in Vitis vinifera var.

Riesling musts and wines. Wines rich in biogenic amines can cause adverse health effects to the consumer. Being nitrogen-containing substances, the amount of amines in wines might be strongly influenced by the rate of nitrogen fertiliser application during grape production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation in the vineyard on the formation of biogenic amines in musts and wines. In a field experiment which compared unfertilised and fertilised 60 and kg N ha -1 vines over two separate years, the total amine concentrations in must and wine increased.

The latter was due to an increase of individual amines such as ethylamine, histamine, isopentylamine, phenylethylamine and spermidine in the musts and wines with the nitrogen application. Furthermore, the fermentation process increased the concentration of histamine and ethylamine in most of the treatments, while spermidine, spermine and isopentylamine concentrations generally decreased.

Throughout both vintages, the concentrations of tyramine and histamine of the investigated musts and wines never reached detrimental levels to the health of non-allergenic people. Nitrogen fertilisation has a significant effect on amines formation in musts and wines. Furthermore, during fermentation, ethylamine and histamine increased while other amines were presumably serving as N sources during fermentation.

An inhomogeneous time series of measurements of the percentage content of biogenic silica in the samples of joint cores BDP and BDP from the bottom of Lake Baikal drilled at a depth of m under water has been analyzed. The composite depth of cores is 77 m, which covers the Pleistocene Epoch to 1. For this, the combined spectral periodogram a modification of the spectral analysis method was used.

Some of the revealed quasi-harmonics are related to the characteristic cyclical oscillations of the Earth's orbital parameters. Special focus was payed to the temporal change in the parameters of the revealed quasi-harmonic components over the Pleistocene Epoch, which was studied by constructing the spectral density of the analyzed data in the running window of and kyr.

Uranyl adsorption kinetics within silica gel: dependence on flow velocity and concentration. Trace quantities of a uranyl dissolved in water were measured using a simple optical method. A dilute solution of uranium nitrate dissolved in water was forced through nanoporous silica gel at fixed and controlled water flow rates.

The uranyl ions deposited and accumulated within the silica gel and the uranyl fluorescence within the silica gel was monitored as a function of time using a light emitting diode as the excitation source and a photomultiplier tube detector. It was shown that the response time of the fluorescence output signal at a particular volumetric flow rate or average liquid velocity through the silica gel can be used to quantify the concentration of uranium in water.

The response time as a function of concentration decreased with increasing flow velocity. Molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model are used to study the formation mechanism of periodic mesoporous silica over a wide range of cationic surfactant concentrations. This follows up on an earlier study of systems with low surfactant concentrations. We started by studying the phase diagram of the surfactant—water system and found that our model shows good qualitative agreement with experiments with respect to the surfactant concentrations where various phases appear.

We then considered the impact of silicate species upon the morphologies formed. Upon the addition of silica dimers, a new phase-separated hexagonal array is formed. The preformed liquid crystals were found to be unstable in the presence of monomeric silicates. In addition, the silica dimer is found to be essential for mesoscale ordering at both low and high surfactant concentrations.

Our results support the view that a cooperative interaction of anionic silica oligomers and cationic surfactants determines the mesostructure formation in the M41S family of materials. Effect of catalyst concentration on size, morphology and optical properties of silica nanoparticles.

Today, nanomaterials play a key role in various fields such as electronics, aerospace, pharmaceuticals and biomedical because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties which are different from bulk materials. Nano sized silica particles have gained the prominent position in scientific research and have wide applications. The sol-gel method is the best method to synthesize silica nanoparticles because of its potential to produce monodispersed with narrow size distribution at mild conditions.

The silica nanoparticles were obtained by hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate TEOS in ethanol act as solvent. The optical properties and band structure was analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy which is found to be increase by reducing the size of particles. Concentration effect of catalyst on the size, morphology and optical properties were analyzed. PM4 crystalline silica emission factors and ambient concentrations at aggregate-producing sources in California. This information is needed by industrial facilities to evaluate compliance with the Chronic Reference Exposure Level REL for ambient crystalline silica adopted in by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment.

Air Control Techniques, P. The results of the tests indicate that PM4 crystalline silica emissions range from 0. The PM4 crystalline silica emission factors were proportional to the crystalline silica content of the material handled in the process equipment. Measured ambient concentrations ranged from 0 below detectable limit to 2. Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application.

Azira, A. The availability of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber ENR-LC has provided a better opportunity for using epoxidised natural rubber ENR with silica to reinforce natural rubber for tyre application. ENR-LC mixed directly with silica to rubber by high speed stirrer without using any coupling agent. Some rubber compounds were prepared by mixing a large amount of precipitated amorphous white silica with natural rubber. Overall improvement in the mechanical properties for the ENR-LC over the control crosslinked rubber sample was probably due to synergisms of silica reinforcement and crosslinking of the polymeric matrix phase.

Compounding was carried out on a two roll mill, where the additives and curing agents was later mixed. The evaluation and quantification of respirable coal and silica dust concentrations : a task-based approach. Silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis are serious occupational respiratory diseases associated with the coal mining industry and the inhalation of respirable dusts containing crystalline silica.

The purpose of this study funded by the Mine Health and Safety Council of South Africa was to evaluate the individual contributions of underground coal mining tasks to the respirable dust and respirable silica dust concentrations in an underground section by sampling the respirable dust concentrations at the intake and return of each task.

The identified tasks were continuous miner CM cutting, construction, transfer of coal, tipping, and roof bolting. Personal exposure levels were determined by sampling the exposures of workers performing tasks in the section. Respirable dust concentrations and low concentrations of respirable silica dust were found at the intake air side of the section, indicating that air entering the section is already contaminated.

Dust control methods to lower exposures should include revision of the position of workers with regard to the task performed, positioning of the tasks with regard to the CM cutting, and proper use of the line curtains to direct ventilation appropriately. The correct use of respiratory protection should also be encouraged.

Dissolved silica has been used as a useful indicator of a chemical weathering in many geochemical studies in natural environment. Previous hydrological studies indicated that various hydrological processes affect the dissolution and precipitation of silica in hillslope and transport of this silica to stream; however, information is still limited to link this knowledge to understand geochemical processes.

The observations of dissolved silica concentration in groundwater, spring and stream water was conducted at the unchannelled hillslope in the Tanakami Mountains of central Japan; 1 to clarify the effects of preferential flowpaths including lateral and vertical flow in soil layer and flow through bedrock fracture in the variation of dissolved silica concentration in runoff and groundwater, and 2 to isolate the effects of mixing of water from geochemically diverse water sources on the dissolved silica concentration.

The mean dissolved silica concentrations in soil water at 40 cm depth and transient groundwater formed in upslope area were relatively constant independent of the variation in the new water ratio. The mean dissolved silica concentrations were similar regardless of the sampling depth in soil although the mean residence times of water increase with depth.

These results indicated that dissolved silica concentrations in soil water and transient groundwater were defined almost independent of contact time of water with minerals. While the mean dissolved silica concentration in perennial groundwater, which was recharged by infiltrating water through soil and water emerging from bedrock in a area near to spring, was more than twice that of transient groundwater and the variation was relatively large. The mean dissolved silica concentration increased significantly at downslope from perennial groundwater, spring to the stream and the spring and stream concentrations also showed large variation.

The dissolved silica concentrations of those perennial groundwater. Concentration gradient induced morphology evolution of silica nanostructure growth on photoresist-derived carbon micropatterns. The evolution of silica nanostructure morphology induced by local Si vapor source concentration gradient has been investigated by a smart design of experiments.

Silica nanostructure or their assemblies with different morphologies are obtained on photoresist-derived three-dimensional carbon microelectrode array. Both vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-quasiliquid-solid growth mechanisms have been applied to explain the diverse morphologies involving branching, connecting, and batch growth behaviors.

The present approach offers a potential method for precise design and controlled synthesis of nanostructures with different features. Gold recovery from low concentrations using nanoporous silica adsorbent. The preliminary studies from laboratory simulated noncyanide gold solutions show that the adsorption capacities of these materials are among the highest reported.

The high adsorption saturation level of these materials, up to 1. These rates are significantly higher than the usual Au:S ratio expected for metal ion binding with the material. The additional gold ions loaded have been spontaneously reduced to metallic gold in the mesoporous material. Experimental studies indicated high maximum adsorptions of gold as high as Another promising attribute of these materials is their favourable adsorption kinetics.

The MP-HMS reaches equilibrium saturation in less than 1 minute of exposure in gold bromide and less than 10 minutes in gold chloride. The recovery of adsorbed gold and the regeneration of spent adsorbent were investigated for MP-HMS adsorbent. The regenerated adsorbent MP-HMS maintained its adsorption capacity even after repeated use and all the gold was successfully recovered from the spent adsorbent. For the fist time, a promising adsorbent system has been found that is capable of effectively concentrating gold thiosulphate complexes, whereas conventional carbon-inpulp CIP and carbon-in-leach CIL systems fail.

An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO 2 concentration data. Verification could include a variety of evidence, but arguably the most convincing verification would be confirmation of a change in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere that is consistent with reported emissions to the UNFCCC. We found that the atmospheric CO2 measurement data did verify the accuracy of the emissions inventory within the confidence limits of the emissions estimates, suggesting that this technology could be further developed and deployed more widely in the future for verifying reported emissions.

Impact of elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from Ginkgo biloba. In natural environment with ambient air, ginkgo trees emitted volatile organic compounds 0. Isoprene and limonene were the most abundant detected compounds. In September, alpha-pinene accounted for Elevated CO 2 concentration in OTCs increased isoprene emission significantly in July p biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions, except increases of isoprene and Delta3-carene in September.

This document provides results of experiments aimed at removing silica from geothermal brines. All experiments were conducted with simulated brines. The data presented shows the effect of iron addition, kinetics, temperature, pH and brine concentration.

Seasonal variation of nitrogen oxides, ozone and biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations and fluxes at Norway spruce forest. Dynamics of nitrogen oxides NOx and ozone concentration and their depositions were investigated on the Norway spruce forest at Bily Kriz experimental station at the Silesian Beskydy Mountains north-eastern part of the Czech Republic.

Both NOx and ozone concentration and fluxes were modelled for the whole season and covering thus different climate conditions. Data were recorded for three consecutive years and therefore deeper analyses were performed. Thus data of different levels of canopies together with different spectra of monoterpenes were obtained.

Interesting comparison of both methods will be shown. Other BVOCs than monoterpenes were negligible. Variation of fluxes between different canopies levels was observed, highlighting difference in shaded and sun exposed leaves. Sun leaves emitted up to 2.

We discuss here the importance of the most common Norway spruce tree forests in the Czech Republic in bi-directional exchanges of important secondary pollutant such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, their. Concentrations of biogenic amines in fundal layers in chickens with normal visual experience, deprivation, and after reserpine application.

Previous experiments in chickens have shown that dopamine released from the retina may be one of the messengers controlling the growth of the underlying sclera. It is also possible, however, that the apparent relationship between dopamine and myopia is secondary and artifactual. We have done experiments to assess this hypothesis. Using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with electrochemical detection HPLC-ED , we have asked whether changes in dopamine metabolism are restricted to the local retinal regions in which myopia was locally induced.

Finally, we have repeated the deprivation experiments after intravitreal application of the irreversible dopamine re-uptake blocker reserpine to see how suppression of dopaminergic transmission affects these changes. We found that 1 Alterations in retinal dopamine metabolism were indeed restricted to the retinal areas in which myopia was induced. Vitreal content was about one-tenth, choroidal content about one-third, and scleral content about one-twentieth of that of the retina.

The effects of ferrocene concentration on CNT growth on micron silica gel. The growth of CNT on micron size spherical silica gel of high porosity was performed in this work. The concentration of the catalyst used, which was ferrocene, was varied from 1 wt. Based on these characterizations, it was found that the ferrocene concentration greatly affects the morphology of the obtained CNT; with 1 wt. Biogenic VOC BVOC has comparably large contribution to generation of secondary air pollutants, such as photochemical oxidant or urban aerosol.

In this study a BVOC emission inventory in the Kansai area, which is located in the central part of Japan, based on the field observation was developed. Some validations of the inventory were conducted by estimating the concentration distribution of oxidants with this developed and an existing BVOC emission inventory in Kansai area by meteorological model MM5 and atmospheric chemical transport model CMAQ.

In the development of BVOC emission, the vegetation map by the Biodiversity Center of Japan which had been arranged as basic information on natural environmental preservation in a regional standard mesh the third mesh in was used. In this study isoprene and the mono-terpene were taken up as BVOC.

Quercus crispula and Quercus serrata were selected as the source of isoprene, and Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtuse, Quercus phillyraeoides, Pinus densiflora, and Pinus thunbergii were selected as sources of mono-terpene.

The parameter of the basic emission rate included in the model was decided by arranging the result of the observation in Kansai Research Center of Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in each season. This emission flux from each species were calculated by G93 model by Guenther et al. In calculating meteorological fields, meteorological model MM5 Ver. Tentative explanatory variable of lung dust concentration in gold miners exposed to crystalline silica.

The first objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between quantitative lung mineral dust burdens, dust exposure history, and pathological fibrosis grading in silicotic workers. The second objective was to evaluate the association between particle size parameters, concentration of retained silica particles and the severity of the silicosis.

Sixty-seven paraffin-embedded lung tissue samples of silicotic patients were analyzed. The cases of silicosis included 39 non-lung cancer patients and 28 patients with lung cancer. All of the cases were gold miners in the Province of Ontario, Canada. Particles, both angular and fibrous, were extracted from lung parenchyma by a bleach digestion method, mounted on copper microscopic grids by a carbon replica technique, and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy TEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy EDS.

Quartz concentration was also determined by X-ray diffraction XRD on a silver membrane filter after the extraction from the lung parenchyma. Total particles, silica , clay, and quartz also increase in concentration with increased age at death, although the trends are not statistically significant. A statistically significant linear relationship between lung quartz concentration and silicosis severity in the gold miners was.

The effect of different dopant concentration of tailor-made silica fibers in radiotherapy dosimetry. Begum, Mahfuza; Mizanur Rahman, A. In thermoluminescence TL material dopant concentration has an important effect on their characteristics as a ;radiation-sensor;. The intention is to seek development of alternative TL materials that offer exceptional advantages over existing passive systems of dosimetry, including improved spatial resolution, a water impervious nature and low cost.

Photon beams 6 MV and 10 MV from a clinical linear accelerator were used for irradiation of the fiber samples over radiation therapy doses, ranging from 0. SEM-EDX analysis was also performed to investigate the homogeneity of distribution of Ge dopant concentration from the fiber samples. The TL intensity of the fiber samples was found to strongly depend on Ge dopant concentration , with samples showing enhanced TL yields with decreasing Ge dopant concentration.

The fading behavior of the different concentration Ge doped TLD-materials were also measured over a period of thirty 30 days subsequent to irradiation. The relative sensitivity of the samples with respect to standard TLD were found to be 0. In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF and nano-porous silica particle were used to fabricate an asymmetric nano-composite membrane.

Cross sectional morphology showed that silica particles were dispersed in polymer matrix uniformly. However, particle agglomeration was found at higher loading of silica i. Silica particle increased the omega-3PUFA concentration from Fouling mechanism analysis revealed that complete pore blocking was the predominant mechanism occurring in oil filtration. The concentration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA is important in the oil industries. While the current methods demand high energy consumptions in concentrating the omega-3, membrane separation technology offers noticeable advantages in producing pure omega-3 PUFA.

Moreover, concentrating omega-3 via membrane separation produces products in the triacylglycerol form which possess better oxidative stability. In this work, the detailed mechanisms of fouling which limits the performance of membrane separation were investigated.

Incorporating silica particles to polymeric membrane resulted in the formation of mixed matrix membrane with improved anti-fouling behaviour compared to the neat polymeric membrane. Hence, the industrial potential of membrane processing to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids is enhanced. The silica cycle in a Northeast Pacific fjord; the role of biological resuspension.

This study is a quantitative assessment of the role fish-induced bio-resuspension plays in the silica cycle of coastal waters. We used new, published and archived oceanographic data to construct a comprehensive silica budget for Saanich Inlet Vancouver Island, Canada , a highly productive Northeast Pacific fjord, where siliceous diatoms dominate primary productivity. Anoxia in the deep water of the inlet persists during most of the year, precluding animal life, whereas abundant groundfish continuously rework and resuspend bottom sediments in the shallower, oxygenated margins.

This resuspension transfers settled biogenic silica fragments from the sediment, where they are immersed in porewater that is rich with dissolved silica , to the overlying water, where the much lower concentrations accelerate their dissolution rate. Most of this Si enters the inlet in advected, siliceous phytoplankton.

This case study emphasizes the link between the silica cycle and groundfish activity. Based on this study and because biological resuspension occurs in most regions of the ocean, we recommend that it will be taken into account when budgeting the silica cycle, and potentially other geochemical cycles, in marine environments. Silica extraction from geothermal water. A method of producing silica from geothermal fluid containing low concentration of the silica of less than ppm includes the steps of treating the geothermal fluid containing the silica by reverse osmosis treatment thereby producing a concentrated fluid containing the silica , seasoning the concentrated fluid thereby producing a slurry having precipitated colloids containing the silica , and separating the silica from the slurry.

Biosilification is an economically viable, energy saving and green approach for the commercial scale synthesis of oxide nanomaterials. The room temperature synthesis of oxide nanocomposites from cost effective agro-based waste is a particular example of biosilification. Actinomycete, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma sp.

The XRD diffrectrograms represents that the synthesized nanomaterials exhibits silicon, amorphous silica and other crystal arrays such as cristobalite, trydimite and quartz, depending upon the type microorganism and time period used for extraction. All of the aforesaid microorganism bio transformed the naturally occurring amorphous silica to crystalline structures within the period of 24 h. However, the Actinomycete and Trichoderma sp. While in case of wheat bran, Actinomycete and Trichoderma sp.

The extracted nanocomposites exhibits band edge in the range nm and blue emission. Sorption of organic cations onto silica surfaces over a wide concentration range of competing electrolytes. The fundamental understanding of organic cation-solid phase interactions is essential for improved predictions of the transport and ultimate environmental fates of widely used substances e.

We report sorption experiments of two cationic model compounds using two silica gels and a natural aquifer sediment. The sorbents were extensively characterized and the results of surface titrations under various background electrolyte concentrations were discussed. The salt dependency of sorption was systematically studied in batch experiments over a wide concentration range five orders of magnitude of inorganic ions in order to examine the influence of increasing competition on the sorption of organic cations.

The organic cation uptake followed the Freundlich isotherm model and the sorption capacity decreases with an increase in the electrolyte concentration due to the underlying cation exchange processes. To our knowledge, this effect has not been observed before and appears to be independent from the sorbent characteristics and sorbate structure.

Furthermore, the recovery of sorption was attributed to specific, non-ionic interactions and a connection between the sorption coefficient and activity coefficient of the medium is presumed. Eventually, the reasons for the differing sorption affinities of both sorbates are discussed. Concentration of small ring structures in vitreous silica from a first-principles analysis of the Raman spectrum.

Using a first-principles approach, we calculate Raman spectra for a model structure of vitreous silica. We develop a perturbational method for calculating the dielectric tensor in an ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme and obtain Raman coupling tensors by finite differences with respect to atomic displacements. For frequencies below cm -1 , the parallel-polarized Raman spectrum of vitreous silica is dominated by oxygen bending motions, showing a strong sensitivity to the intermediate range structure.

By modeling the Raman coupling, we derive estimates for the concentrations of three- and four-membered rings from the experimental intensities of the Raman defect lines. Effect of neonatal nociceptin or nocistatin imprinting on the brain concentration of biogenic amines and their metabolites. Noradrenaline NA , dopamine DA , homovanillic acid HA , serotonin 5HT and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid 5HIAA content of five brain regions hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, striatum and frontal cortex and the cerebrospinal fluid CSF was measured in adult three months old male and female rats treated neonatally with a single dose of 10 microg nociceptin NC or 10 microg nocistatin NS for hormonal imprinting.

The biogenic amine and metabolite content of cerebrospinal fluid was also determined. In NC treated animals the serotonergic, dopaminergic as well as noradrenergic systems were influenced by the imprinting. Hippocampus and striatum and the HVA levels increased highly significantly in brainstem.

Dopamine level decreased significantly in striatum, however in frontal cortex both noradrenalin and 5HIAA level decreased. Nevertheless, in NS-treated rats decreased NA tissue levels were found in hypothalamus, brainstem and frontal cortex. Decreased DA levels were found in the hypothalamus, brainstem and striatum.

NS imprinting resulted in decreased HVA level, but increased one in the brainstem. The 5HT levels decreased in the hypothalamus, brainstem, striatum and frontal cortex, while 5HIAA content of CSF, and frontal cortex decreased, and that of hypothalamus, hippocampus and striatum increased.

There was no significant difference between genders except in the 5HT tissue levels of NC treated rats. Data presented show that neonatal imprinting both by NC and NS have long-lasting and brain area specific effects.

In earlier experiments endorphin imprinting also influenced the serotonergic system suggesting that during labour release of pain-related substances may durably affect the serotonergic dopaminergic, adrenergic system which can impress the animals' later behavior. Determination of size and mass-and number-based concentration of biogenic SeNPs synthesized by lactic acid bacteria by using a multimethod approach.

For this purpose, a methodology based on the use of surfactants in basic medium was developed for isolating SeNPs from the bacterial pellet. NTA measurements of number-based concentration reported values of 4. The quantitative results obtained by NTA were supported by theoretical calculations. The data obtained by independent techniques were in good agreement and the developed methodology could be implemented for characterizing NPs in complex matrices such as biogenic nanoparticles embedded inside microbial material.

Published by Elsevier B. Modeling the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions on ozone concentration during summer season in the Kinki region of Japan. Tropospheric ozone adversely affects human health and vegetation, and biogenic volatile organic compound BVOC emission has potential to influence ozone concentration in summer season.

In this research, the standard emissions of isoprene and monoterpene from the vegetation of the Kinki region of Japan, estimated from growth chamber experiments, were converted into hourly emissions for July using the temperature and light intensity data obtained from results of MM5 meteorological model. To investigate the effect of BVOC emissions on ozone production, two ozone simulations for one-month period of July were carried out.

The quantitative analyses of the ozone results clearly indicate that the use of spatio-temporally varying BVOC emission improves the prediction of ozone concentration. The explicit difference appeared in urban area, though the place where the maximum difference occurred changed with time. Overall, BVOC emissions from the forest vegetation strongly affected the ozone generation in the urban area.

Understanding of the uranium uptake processes both in vivo and post-mortem into the skeletal structures of marine calcifiers is a subject of multi-disciplinary interest. U- concentration changes within the molluscan shell may serve as a paleoceanographic proxy of the pH history. A proxy of this type is needed to track the effects of fossil fuel emissions to ocean acidification.

Moreover, attaining reliable U-series dates using shell materials would be a geochronological breakthrough. Picturing the high-resolution changes of U- concentrations in shell profiles is now possible by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry LA-ICP-MS.

Here, we analyzed in situ U- concentration variations in sub-fossilized shells of ocean quahog Arctica islandica , a commonly studied bivalve species in Quaternary geoscience, using LA-ICP-MS. Microstructural details of the shell profiles were achieved by the scanning electron microscopy SEM.

Comparison of the shell aragonite microstructure with the changes in U- concentration revealed that uranium of possibly secondary origin is concentrated into the porous granular layers of the shell. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that U- concentration variations can be linked with microstructural differences within the shell.

The reactive ion etching RIE process of fused silica is often accompanied by surface contamination, which seriously degrades the ultraviolet laser damage performance of the optics. In this study, we find that the contamination behavior on the fused silica surface is very sensitive to the RIE process which can be significantly optimized by changing the plasma generating conditions such as discharge mode, etchant gas and electrode material.

Additionally, an optimized RIE process is proposed to thoroughly remove polishing-introduced contamination and efficiently prevent the introduction of other contamination during the etching process. The research demonstrates the feasibility of improving the damage performance of fused silica optics by using the RIE technique.

Diatom stratigraphy and long-term dissolved silica concentrations in the Baltic Sea. In many parts of the world coastal waters with anthropogenic eutrophication have experienced a gradual depletion of dissolved silica DSi stocks. This could put pressure on spring bloom diatom populations, e.

In addition, eutrophication driven enhanced diatom growth is responsible for the redistribution of DSi from the water phase to the sediments, and changes in the growth conditions may be reflected in the sediment diatom stratigraphy. To test for changes in diatom communities we have analyzed four sediment cores from the Baltic Sea covering approximately the last years. Three out of the four cores reveal only minor changes in composition of diatom assemblages, while the Gulf of Riga core contains major changes, occurring after the second World War.

DSi consumption and biomass yield experiments with cultured T. The phytoplankton time series reveals another exceptional T. These periods may be reflected in the conspicuous. We intend to develop new prognostic models for the prediction of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from forest ecosystems in the face of possible future changes in the climate and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

These models will b A silica gel coated microsphere resonator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for measurements of ammonia NH 3 concentration in air with ultra-high sensitivity. The optical properties of the porous silica gel layer change when it is exposed to low parts per million ppm and even ultra-low parts per billion ppb concentrations of ammonia vapor, leading to a spectral shift of the WGM resonances in the transmission spectrum of the fiber taper.

The experimentally demonstrated sensitivity of the proposed sensor to ammonia is estimated as In addition, the sensor exhibits excellent selectivity to ammonia and very fast response and recovery times measured at 1. Other attractive features of the proposed sensor are its compact nature, simplicity of fabrication.

Efficient adsorption concentration and photolysis of acetaldehyde on titania-mesoporous silica composite. Dynamic adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition features for acetaldehyde CH3CHO were measured by flow method. Silica fractionation and reactivity in soils. The first results showed differences in silica fractions between treatments and between soil types. This project is a close collaboration with University of Dresden.

Humans use fertilizers to increase crops growth and to avoid plagues affecting soil biogeochemistry. We set up a greenhouse experiment where olivine a relatively easily weatherable silicate mineral fertilization is applied to two crops barley and wheat , at two rain application regimes daily rain and weekly heavy rain and with different fertilizer grain sizes. The aim of this project is to investigate how olivine application affects Si fractionation and reactivity in the soil profile.

Pedogenic and biogenic amorphous Si distribution along a temperate land use gradient. Submitted, European Journal of Soil Science, Koning, E. Vandevenne, F. Agricultural silica harvest: have humans created a new and important loop in the global silica cycle?

Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment In this work we describe a novel and simple self-assembly of colloidal silica beads to create nanofluidic junction between two microchannels. Oil in water emulsions occur during oil extraction due to the presence of water, naturally-occurring surface-active agents and mechanical mixing in pipelines or from oil spillage.

Emulsions present difficulties for use of oil in fuel and their rheological properties are important to treat environmental impacts of spills. Rheological behaviors such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity of Prudhoe Bay crude oil emulsions were analyzed with varying percent of water volume fractions Emulsions with varying water volume fractions were analyzed at 20, 40 and 60 degrees Celsius.

Flow curve analysis of the emulsions was performed using an Anton-Paar rheometer. Preliminary findings indicate that increased temperature and increasing the concentration of nanoparticles both produced lower shear stress and that the addition of surfactant decreased the viscosity and shear stress of the emulsions.

Changes in lung function of granite crushers exposed to moderately high silica concentrations : a 12 year follow up. On average, the granite crushers at follow up had worked for 22 years, were 52 range years old, and had inhaled a cumulated amount of 7 mg of silica in the respirable dust fraction. Between and the average concentration of respirable quartz in air was 0. Five smoking granite crushers, but none of the referents, had an FEV1 silica at concentrations of about twice the present TLV was thus associated with airways obstruction and loss of elastic recoil rather than fibrosis and a restrictive function loss as seen in silicosis.

The changes were on average small, but in some tobacco smokers more pronounced changes were found. Influence of various cooking methods on the concentrations of volatile N-nitrosamines and biogenic amines in dry-cured sausages. N-nitrosamines, biogenic amines, and residual nitrites are harmful substances and are often present in cured meats.

The effects of different cooking methods boiling, pan-frying, deep-frying, and microwave were investigated on their contents in dry-cured sausage. The various N-nitrosamines were isolated by a steam distillation method and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry GC-MS. The biogenic amines were determined after extraction with perchloric acid as dansyl derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC method.

The results showed that initial dry-cured raw sausage contained 5. The major objective of this study was to relate the results of a series of functional tests to the compositional and structural alterations in the rat lung induced by subchronic exposure to silica dust. The general appearance of the exposed rats was not different from that of the controls. Interestingly, female rats exposed to silica dust, at all tested concentrations , gained more weight than the controls.

Dating groundwater with dissolved silica and CFC concentrations in crystalline aquifers. Estimating intermediate water residence times a few years to a century in shallow aquifers is critical to quantifying groundwater vulnerability to nutrient loading and estimating realistic recovery timelines. In this context, we developed a framework to assess the capacity of dissolved silica DSi to inform residence times in shallow aquifers.

We calibrated silicate weathering rates with CFCs from multiple wells in five crystalline aquifers in Brittany and in the Vosges Mountains France. DSi and CFCs were complementary in determining apparent weathering reactions and residence time distributions RTDs in shallow aquifers. Silicate weathering rates were surprisingly similar among Brittany aquifers, varying from 0.

The silicate weathering rate was lower for the aquifer in the Vosges Mountains 0. Overall, these optimized silicate weathering rates are consistent with previously published studies with similar apparent ages range. This methodology could allow quantification of seasonal groundwater contributions to streams, estimation of residence times in the unsaturated zone and improve assessment of aquifer vulnerability to anthropogenic pollution.

The effect of nano- silica fertilizer concentration and rice hull ash doses on soybean Glycine max L. Merrill growth and yield. Agriculture is facing a number of challenges included limited water supply, low nutrient use efficiency, etc affected by climate change. Nano- silica is a product of nanotechnology, the frontier technologies to enhance crop productivity under climate change threats.

The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of nano silica concentration and rice hull ash on growth and yield of soybean. The treatments were arranged by using factorial completely randomized block design with two factors. The first factor was a concentration of nano silica fertilizer consisted of four levels i. The second factor was doses of rice hull ash consisted of four levels i.

Each treatment combinations was repeated three times. The result showed that concentration of nano silica individually affected the number of leaves and number of branches, NAR and RGR, productive branches at 21, , and 35 daps, respectively.

There was an interaction effect between nano- silica concentration and doses of rice hull ash on number pods. Combinations of 2. Linking biogenic hydrocarbons to biogenic aerosol in the Borneo rainforest. Hamilton, J. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are though to contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation in the tropics, but understanding these transformation processes has proved difficult, due to the complexity of the chemistry involved and very low concentrations.

Aerosols from above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest in Borneo were characterised using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry, high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry FTICRMS techniques. Oxygenated compounds were identified in ambient organic aerosol that could be directly traced back to isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpene emissions, by combining field data on chemical structures with mass spectral data generated from synthetically produced products created in a simulation chamber.

The observations provide the unambiguous field detection of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oxidation products in SOA above a pristine tropical rainforest. The presence of 2-methyl tetrol organosulfates and an associated sulfated dimer provides direct evidence that isoprene in the presence of sulfate aerosol can make a contribution to biogenic organic aerosol above tropical forests.

High-resolution mass spectrometry indicates that sulfur can also be incorporated into oxidation products arising from monoterpene precursors in tropical aerosol. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are though to contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation in the tropics, but understanding the process of these transformations has proved difficult, due to the complexity of the chemistry involved and very low concentrations.

Aerosols from above a South East Asian tropical rainforest in Borneo were characterised using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry, high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry and fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry FTICRMS techniques.

The presence of 2-methyltetrol organosulfates and an associated sulfated dimer provides direct evidence that isoprene in the presence of sulfate aerosol can make a contribution to biogenic organic aerosol above tropical forests. Correlation between the silica concentration and the orifice temperature in the warm springs along the jordan-dead sea rift valley. Analysis of twenty-one thermal springs emerging along the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley in Israel indicates a very good correlation between the concentration of dissolved silica and the temperature of the spring orifice.

Dissolution of quartz was identified as the apparent source of the silica in the water. Application of the silica geothermometer for mixed systems suggests that the springs in the Tiberias Lake Basin are supplied with hot water from deep reservoir or reservoirs at a temperature of ?? C ?? The same temperature was postulated earlier by the application of the Na-K-Ca hydro-geothermometer to a group of thermal springs in the same basin.

The temperature of the reservoir supplying hot brines to the springs emerging along the western shore of the Dead Sea is estimated at 90?? Bio-active engineered 50 nm silica nanoparticles with bone anabolic activity: therapeutic index, effective concentration , and cytotoxicity profile in vitro. Silica -based nanomaterials are generally considered to be excellent candidates for therapeutic applications particularly related to skeletal metabolism however the current data surrounding the safety of silica based nanomaterials is conflicting.

This may be due to differences in size, shape, incorporation of composite materials, surface properties, as well as the presence of contaminants following synthesis. Nineteen different cell lines representing all major organ types were used to investigate an in vitro lethal concentration LC and results revealed little toxicity in any cell type analyzed. These results demonstrate the pharmacological potential of certain silica -based nanomaterial formulations for use in treating bone diseases based on a favorable in vitro therapeutic index.

Biogenic Emission Sources. Biogenic emissions sources come from natural sources and need to accounted for in photochemical grid models. They are computed using a model which utilizes spatial information on vegetation and land use.

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