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Speculation over the sex and name of the next royal to be born is becoming more frenzied as the Duchess of Cambridge's pregnancy progresses. Many are already convinced the royal bump will be a girl and now those who are putting money on the royal baby name seem to be settling on a firm favorite: Alexandra. According to betting shop odds we can expect the royal baby to be a girl and named Alexandra.
In March many believed that Kate confirmed she was having a daughter when she thanked a girl for a teddy by asking if it was for her 'd The famously discreet Duchess of Cambridge was thought to have dropped her guard over the baby's sex while meeting a crowd on a visit to Grimsby in March. According to one member of the crowd Kate, who is six months pregnant, appeared to hint she might be having a baby girl. The idea that Kate may have been starting to say 'daughter' sparked a media storm, and the incident has clearly effected the betting odds on the future monarch's name.
Kate is amazing with children and all indications are that her and William will be very much 'hands on parents'- whatever their babies name. Ever since Price William and the Duchess of Cambridge announced they were expecting, speculation on the babies sex and name has been rife.
The name Alexandra is not a common moniker within the royal household, with the only current member to use the name being Prince Michael of Kent's sister- Princess Alexandra. She is the first Alexandra in the Royal family since , although the current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II has 'Alexandra' as one of her two middle names. Thus the name would be a fairly unique choice for the young couple's first child should they in fact have a girl.
The feminine form of the male name Alexander, it began to gain popularity when Edward VII, The Prince of Wales, married Danish princess Alexandra in , but its popularity has been dropping in recent years. While William performed his duty as an RAF rescue helicopter pilot the couple lived in a remote farmhouse in Anglesey. Kate was often seen shopping at the local Waitrose for their dinner, which she is said to have cooked herself.
Speculation is high that the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge also plan to break with royal tradition by not employing a full-time nanny. The couple are determined to be 'hands-on parents' and Kate is planning to look after her child without the help of someone 24 hours a day. Born in on 25th December to the Duke and Dutchess of Kent, Princess Alexandra enjoyed a quiet but privileged upbringing in the family estate in Coppins, in Buckinghamshire, with her brothers the present Duke of Kent and Prince Michael of Kent.
Princess Alexandra is an working member of the Royal family and performs numerous official duties. When Princess Alexandra left Heathfield School near Ascot she took a nursing course at Great Ormond Street Hospital before beginning her job as a working member of the royal family. She married Sir Angus Ogilvy in Wetsminster Abbey in and they have two children together ; James, born in , and Marina, born in Princess Alexandra, 77, carries out official duties in support of The Queen and is the patron of many charities such as Alzheimer's Society, St.
Lansky badly wanted to open a gambling casino in Nassau, a city close to Miami and already well known to the mobs powerboat skippers, who had once used it as a base for running bootleg alcohol into the United States. Gambling was illegal in the A century of scientific crime detection opened in when a man named Edward Henry was put in charge of the Criminal Investigation Department at Scotland Yard. He had pioneered the classification of fingerprints as a means of identifying criminals while inspector-general of the Indian Police.
Everyone, it had been discovered, had their own unique pattern of skin ridges. Henry's particular contribution was to discern, amid the infinite variety of loops, whorls, deltas and arches, five basic patterns which he then broke down into subdivisions. The first great test for Edward Henry's system of analyz- ing fingerprints came in a case in when an elderly couple living above their shop in southeast London were murdered. Police managed to obtain a clear thumbprint from a cash box emptied out by the intruders.
Suspicion fell on two young criminals— the Strattons— who were arrested. Their fingerprints were used as evidence in an historic trial. The prosecution pointed out eleven points of similarity between the thumb print of Alfred Stratton and that found on the cash box. The Strattons were found guilty and sent to the gallows. Police forces worldwide soon began to build up card index files of fingerprints; these have been replaced since the s with push-button electronic indexing, and com- puter systems that can match prints at a rate of 60, comparisons a second.
The traditional method for obtaining prints at the scene of a crime is to dust surfaces with a substance such as powdered aluminum, then place sticky tape over the mark to lift away an impression. New technology has brought improvements. Since the FBI has been using laser and other devices to pick up fingerprints from such unpromising surfaces as Styrofoam cups. It has also now become possible to take a fingerprint from the body of a murder victim.
Bahamas, but perhaps that could be changed through the influence of Sir Harry Oakes and the Duke of Windsor? According to one theory, Sir Harry was killed because he refused to be pushed around by the mob. In this version, the ritualistic ele- ments of the murder — the fire and feathers — were seen as trademarks of a Mafia contract killing.
Christie had dined with Oakes on the fateful night and slept in a bedroom just down the corridor from the mur- der room; in fact it was he who discovered the body and raised the alarm. He and Oakes were the only two people in the house that night, and Christie swore an oath that he never left the building after going to bed at 1 1 p. However, a local traffic policeman. Sears had known Christie all his fife and had no apparent motive to fie.
One version of events proposes that he and Oakes both went to Nassau harbor on the fateful night, to meet emissaries from Mever Lansky on a power- boat. The obdurate Oakes was beaten up there before being driven back to his home, with Christie shivering in the passenger seat.
Sir Harry had been turned over or repositioned on the bed in some w'ay. Although the corpse was lying on its back, blood from a wound at the back of the head had run across the face, indicat- ing that the corpse must have been face dowai at some time. Some newly declassified FBI documents have been invoked to show that the Nassau police believed Christie guilty at the time. But there have been many other theo- ries.
The Swede w'as also friendlv with Hermann Goering and Mussolini, and was widelv rumored to be a Nazi spy. Wenner-Gren had set up a bank in Mexico, and some researchers believe that he was helping his Bahamian friends to evade wartime currency restrictions through its facilities. The big money; combined with a pro-fascist government in Mexico, would have made Sir Harry a figure of key interest Traffic Cop Captain Edward Sears, Bahamas chief of traffic police, gave important evidence at the de Marigny trial.
He could have fallen foul of either. Other speculation focuses on the ritualistic elements of the murder. Some suggest that the fire and the feathers were linked w'ith the Bahamian magical practice called Obeah, which is comparable in some ways to Haitian voodoo.
Was Sir Harry Oakes killed bv a witch- doctor hitman brought in from southern Florida? Some argue that the Duke of Windsor tried to hush up the case because the notion of such a prominent white citizen being victim of a black cult murder would inflame racial tensions on an island which had seen recent riots. Whatever the truth, when in the Duke of Windsor was asked to reopen the case, he refused. Not long after the end of the Second World War, the duke returned to Europe.
He never again discussed the Oakes murder. In the trial of Alfred de Marigny for the murder of his father-in-law Sir Harry Oakes, a fingerprint, which was allegedly found on a Chinese screen next to Sir Harry's bed, turned out to be a key piece of the prosecution evidence. During a brilliant cross-examination of Captain Barker, one of the investigating detectives on the case, the defense counsel, Godfrey Higgs, pulled no punches: Q. I suggest that you and Captain Melchen deliberately planned to get the accused alone in order to get his fingerprints.
We did not. I suggest that Exhibit J did not come from that screen. It did come from that screen, from the number five panel. You can show none of that scrollwork from the screen on Exhibit J, can you? I cannot. This is the most outstanding case in which your expert assistance has ever been requested, is it not? It has developed into that. May I suggest that your desire for personal gain and notoriety has caused you to sweep aside truth. I put it to you, sir, you have fabricated evidence!
The housekeeper, Mrs. Eunice Murray, who had discovered the body, Marilyns psy- chiatrist, Ralph Greenson, and her doctor, Hyman Engelberg, were present when the police arrived. The housekeeper, Eunice Murray, and a policeman are just visible through the doorway. Marilyn had long been reliant on a psychiatrist to help her to cope with the pressures of super- stardom, and was in the habit of taking dings The Housekeeper's Tale Mrs. Eunice Murray made strangely evasive, inconsistent statements about the time when she found Marilyn's body.
Her work was suffering; the studio had fired her for persistent lateness. In Life magazine, the actress had spoken of her difficulties. They would all like sort of a chunk of you. Moreover, there was a much higher concentration of Nembutal — 13 mg. These quantities greatly exceeded normal therapeutic doses, and in combination had proved ledial. Only after die mourners had left were the crowds of journalists, photographers, celebrities and Hollywood hangers-on admitted to the cemetery garden.
In the judgment of some close to Marilyn, the superstar had been killed by the monstrous pressures of her public legend. The questions begin But had quite different forces connived at her death? There were discrepancies in the official verdict. For example, no residue of pills had been found in Marilyn's stomach during the autopsy.
If the I actress had recently swallowed a handful of Nembutal capsules, diey should have left the yellow colored dye of their gelatine jackets 1 in her stomach; but no such residue was pre- sent. Had she been injected with the fatal dose? If so, by whom? Byron, in control of the the case, found Mrs. Murray particularly vague and evasive in answering questions about this critical period. In fact, from early the night before, friends of the actress had become aware that something was very wrong with her.
Between 7 and p. Marilyn had been chatting cheerfully on the phone to the son of Joe DiMaggio, the base- ball star who had been her former husband. Last exit The film star's blanketed body is wheeled out on a stretcher from her home at Fifth Helena Drive. Soon after her death sensa- Marilyn was dead. Kennedy third from left golfing in Florida with his brother-in- law Peter Lawford far right. Drive in Kennedy with a politically motivated mur- der. Marilyn, it has been suggested, had been hav- ing an affair with the presidents younger broth- er, Attorney-General Bobby Kennedy; Bobby made promises of marriage, and when he tried to ditch her she threatened to go pub- lic with the story so the Kennedys had Marilyn murdered.
Kennedy right] and Bobby Kennedy far right have both been linked with Marilyn Monroe's death. Drive was thorough] sanitized to dispose of incriminating evi- dence before the police arrived. Taking another look The story hit the headlines again in with the publica- tion of a biography, Marilyn , by Norman Mailer, in his book. Mailer speculated that Robert Kennedy might have been involved in Marilyns death; or that she might have been killed by government agents in an attempt to frame the attorney-general.
The book sparked a flurry of sensational books. Marilyn might damage a valuable relationship with the government. In a meticulously researched biograph published in , author Donald Spoto dis- TY investigations, dramatizations, memoirs and magazine articles all compounding the sense ol mystery with new allegations; it w r as said that Marilyns home had been wire- tapped bv men acting on orders from Robert Kennedy's arch enemy, union boss Jimmy Hoffa.
He said that there w r as no evidence of any affair with Robert Kennedy, and that Marilyn was not especial- ly depressed at the time of her death; on the contrary. Equally sensational claims have also been made that the actress once had an affair with Bobby's elder brother, President Birthday Greetings A sexy "happy birthday" song, in front of a crowd of 20,, was Marilyn's gift to the president.
John F. These stories have more sub- stance, for while Bobby was a devoted husband, the president had a repu- tation as a womanizer. It is known that Monroe and JFK met at least four times between October and May , and that on Saturday, March 24, , Marilyn and the president spent a night together while they were house guests of Bing Crosby at Palm Springs.
They even phoned one of Marilyn's friends, Ralph Roberts, from a bedroom there. A pas- sionate, long-term liaison has been reported by some but, according to Roberts, "Marilyn gave me the impression that it was not a major event for either of them; it happened once, that weekend, and that was that.
Ralph Greenson with his wife. The couple were among the mourners at the movie star's funeral. She was taking con- trol of her own life with new confidence. How, then, to explain the mysterious time lapse between death and police discovery? And how to explain the lack of capsule residue in Marilyns stom- ach? Greenson had stopped prescribing Nembutal for the actress and was weaning her onto chloral hydrate.
Unknown to him, however, Engelberg had continued to prescribe Nembutal. It was a Last Resting Place Marilyn's funeral casket stands in front of the curtain-covered crypt where she was finally laid to rest. There was no injec- tion when the district attorney reviewed the case in he rejected the possibility of a lethal needle shot, which would have caused instant death, a much higher level I of barbiturate in the blood and a conspicuous bruise on the body.
The fatal enema was, it is alleged, administered by the housekeeper Eunice Murray — untrained as a nurse — after Greenson left. Perhaps they combined efforts to remove any trace of their involvement in the death of the woman who was in their care. Here, perhaps, lies the expla- nation of the time lapse between Marilyns death and discovery and the call to the police. When police arrived at the house, Eunice Murray was washing linen and gar- ments.
F or sheer drama, few news stories of modern times could match the Entebbe Raid. On the night of July 3, , Air France flight sat on the tarmac of Entebbe airport. Then out of the darkness appeared three Hercules transport planes filled with Israeli commandos on a daring mission to rescue the hostages. After a furious gun battle, involving com- mandos, terrorists and Ugandan soldiers, the freed hostages were in die transporter planes and heading home to Israel.
The swoop was jusdy celebrated as a triumph for die Israelis, and for counter-terrorism worldwide. Dora Bloch, photographed here with her granddaughter, missed the escape from Entebbe. Did he order the death of Dora Bloch?
The Ugandan authorities revealed that Mrs. The day after the raid, a British Embassy official visited her there. She was guarded bv two plainclothes men who indicated that she would soon be taken to the Imperial Hotel in Kampala. But just one hour later, when the official returned with some food for the patient, he was denied entry. No one at the hospital could say what had happened to her, and the Ugandan authorities said only that Mrs.
Bloch was missing and was being searched for. They added that, from the time of the Israeli raid, Uganda had ceased to be responsible for Mrs. Bloch had in fact been returned to the hijacked aircraft before the raid, a story - which was obviously untrue. Where had Dora Bloch gone? Eyewitnesses reported diat the gray- haired old lady had been dragged screaming from her hed.
Although it was accepted fairly quickly that she was dead, no one could say - for certain until , when Amin's regime was overthrown. With a new government in Kampala, investiga- tors were at last able to piece together her fate. They discovered that four Ugandan secret policemen had come to the hospital, dragged her from her bed and bundled her screaming into a waiting Mercedes. She was then taken to a forest and shot.
But who was responsible for Mrs. Blochs murder? O ne September evening in a Bulgarian author and broadcaster working for the BBC World Service was killed on a busy street in London by a poi- soned umbrella point. Suddenly, something jabbed him sharply in the thigh from behind. As he looked around, he saw a thick-set man pick up an umbrella that had fallen to the ground. The man muttered an apology in a voice with a heavy foreign accent, jumped into a taxi and disappeared. He believed that his defection and his criticism of Bulgaria's communist regime made him a target for assassination.
When he was no better the next day he mentioned the umbrella episode to his wife, Annabel. With his temperature soaring to a feverish level, Markov was rushed off to St. The doctors there at first took his symptoms for those of septi- caemia, a blood infection, but he did not respond to treatment with antibiotics, and fell into a coma. Four days after being admitted to the south London hospital Georgi Markov died of a heart attack.
An enemy of the state The incident might have been taken for a natural death but for Markovs own insis- tence that the umbrella incident had caused his fever. His past had made him suspicious. In he had published two volumes of short stories, the success of which had resulted in his joining an elite corps of Bulgarian writers. He was a regular visitor to Mount Vitosha, where many leaders of the Zhivkov regime had villas. But Markov s skill for satire made him unpop- ular in the corridors of power, and in he defected to Britain.
In his broadcasts and writing the defector did not shrink from criticizing the Bulgarian authorities. So when he died suddenly, protesting that he had been attacked, his body was examined carefully. Several days after Markovs death a tiny metal ball made from an alloy of platinum and iridium, and no bigger than a pinhead, was found embed- ded in his leg. Microscopic examination revealed that two tiny holes had been pre- cisely drilled into the pellet.
The inquest into Markovs death was held on January 2, Expert witnesses testi- fied that the pellet found in Markovs leg had probably been filled with ricin — a poison derived from the castor-oil plant and twice as lethal as cobra venom. Experts also testified Everyday Killer The lethal weapon that killed Markov could have been a specially adapted umbrella. The murderer would fire the fatal pellet by pulling a trig- ger in the handle. In the light of the evidence the court returned a verdict of unlawful killing.
The Markov attack was not unique; Vladimir Kostov, the former head of the Bulgarian state radio and TV network, who had defected to the West in , had been attacked in a similar way in Paris a few weeks before the Markov attack. As Mr. Then in October a Bulgarian exile, Vladimir Simeonov, died in London in mys- terious circumstances.
Vladimir Simeonov right died mysteriously in London only a month after Markov. Oleg Kalugin, a former KGB chief, has also stated that the Russian authorities furnished the Bulgarians with the necessary equipment with which to conduct the assassination. Despite these new leads, headlines in which trumpeted the imminent arrest of the killer proved false. Precisely who killed Georgi Markov is still a mystery, and the file at Scotland Yard remains open.
During the Second World War, Britain's Special Operations Executive invented various tools for its secret agents which were worthy of "Q" from the James Bond movies: a gas gun disguised as a fountain pen, and even an exploding cowpat for saboteurs to place in the path of oncoming tanks. In a trained Soviet assassin who had been sent to kill the leader of a Russian exile group in Germany gave himself up instead to the man he was supposed to kill.
Concealed in the battery of his car were a variety of murder weapons, including a gold cigarette case that silently fired poisoned dumdum bullets when it was squeezed at the base. His name was Bogdan Stashynsky, and he confessed to the murders of two anticommunist exiles: Lev Rebet in and Stefan Bandera in Both appeared to have died of heart attacks, but the assassin told how he had killed them with a finger-thick metal tube, about 7 inches long.
It fired a spray of prussic acid into the victim's face, causing death when the vapor was inhaled but leaving no trace in the body. The killer protected himself by taking an antidote just before the attack and another afterwards. Deadly Device An artist's recon- struction shows how the murder weapon may have worked. At die time he was awaiting an appeal against a four-year prison sentence for currency offenses.
Calvis vanish- ing act was newsworthy enough; what followed astonished die world. The following Friday, Roberto The corpse hung from a nylon rope which had been noosed around the 1 ' 15a ' - n l neck and fastened to die scaffolding by two half-hitch knots. A false pass- 2 07 a m. More than 10 pounds of broken 3. They had apparently acted as weights to guar- antee the financier his death. The gruesome discovery precipi- tated the collapse of the already faltering Banco Ambrosiano, a finan- cial disaster which not only shook the international banking system but also rocked die Vatican.
Calvi had been, it was said, "Gods Banker. The companies were rumored to be involved in money laundering for the Mafia and were controlled by the Vatican via a holding company. But the money simply disappeared, and Banco Ambrosiano began to sink under the pressure of the loans. There were allegations that the missing millions had been channelled into Italian political parties, into the sinister P-2 freemasons.
The plank that Calvi was assumed to have walked along would have been under water at 2 a. Calvis struggling bank could be saved only if the Vatican agreed to repay some of the money lent to the companies. But the Vatican refused to be held responsible for the financial activities of companies simply held in its name. Did Calvi hang himself? Or was he dropped from tine bridge by unknown hands? Had Calvi taken his own life?
From the outset the police in London treat- ed the case as a suicide, and this was also the verdict of jurors at the inquest held in July. The motive seemed obvious: the financier had seen the ruin of his empire and was probably facing a four-year prison sen- tence. He had reportedly made a previous suicide attempt in police custody. It was not impossible to believe that he succumbed to despair in London.
Italian banker who suffered from vertigo to kill himself. Why go to Blaekfriars Bridge anyway when he had enough barbiturates in his hideaway in Chelsea to kill himself pri- vately and without the risk of pain? People were threatening him, they said, perhaps people who wanted to silence him before his appeal hearings in Italy.
The suicide verdict seemed increasingly unlikely. How much more difficult earning a load of Behind Bars A Calvi associate, Sicilian swindler Michele Sindona, on trial in Milan for complicity in a murder. However, at 2 a. The water must have been at a height to break his fall. More expert testimony made it seem possible that the banker might have been drugged after all, perhaps by inhalation. With the evidence mounting against suicide, the jury returned an open verdict.
In Italy in I9S9 a court took things fur- ther, recording a verdict of murder. If Calvi was murdered, there is no shortage of theo- ries as to who did it and why. The Freemasons Calvi had headed the financial wing of the outlawed P-2 Masonic Lodge, and it was Often in 20th-century mysteries of death or disappearance, research hints at a Mafia involvement. It has been discerned in cases as different as the Calvi affair, the Kennedy assassination and the murder of Sir Harry Oakes.
The Syndicate's interests extend from gambling, narcotics and prostitution into the worlds of high finance, show business and big government. The Mafia began in Sicily as a network of gangs, or "families," hired by local landowners to protect their estates. Members began to operate protection rackets among fruit-pickers, taxi drivers and other tradesmen, demanding regular payments to allow people to earn a living. Mafia families were bound by o merta manliness , a code of honor and silence.
They came to the U. There Mafia gangs developed interests in gambling and in labor unions and, in particular, in the bootleg liquor industry during the Prohibition years. After fierce feuding ended in a bloody purge in , a new nationwide Mafia emerged, based on cooperation between mobs. The Second World War brought an unlikely alliance with U. Sicilian gangsters and American spies shared a mutual interest in eradicat- ing Benito Mussolini, and the Mafia cooperated with the Allies in the invasion of Italy.
These links were revived in America's postwar struggle against communism— both the CIA and the Mafia wanted to see Castro ousted from Cuba the Mafia wanted to develop gambling on the island. However, little was known about the hierarchy until when former gangster Joe Valachi right , broke the code of silence and told all he knew. Despite detailed knowledge of the organiza- tion's structure, however, convictions remain rare. In the United States the Mafia remains a powerful force, and in Italy its influence is a national scandal.
The extent of its influence was exemplified in when former premier Giulio Andreotti was brought to trial for alleged Mafia dealings. Had Calvi been discovered a few hours later, his body would have been soaked twice by the Thames tides. Opus Dei Gods Work , a small right- wing Catholic organization, was a prime candidate for such a deal, which would have had repercussions on the balance of power within the Vatican. Calvi had for many years had close dealings with the Sicilian tax lawyer Michele Sindona, who was later con- victed of perjury, misappropriation of funds and murder.
Sindona was also heavily impli- cated in money-laundering for the Mafia. Calvi had man- aged to distance himself from the affair and would not help Sidona, thus making a pow- erful enemy. In , a reliable Sicilian informant under the protection of the U. The witness. The case is still wide open years later The affair simply refused to die. It was reputed to contain bunches of keys to safe-deposit boxes, as well as incriminating documents. Carboni was con- victed of illegally possessing the briefcase and was also sentenced to 15 years in jail for irregularities relating to Banco Ambrosiano s final collapse with huge debts.
In newspaper headlines trumpeted the solution to the death of Roberto Calvi. However, an arrest was never made. Top churchmen. Socialists, Fascists, Freemasons, Mafia leaders and international arms dealers The secret society to which Calvi belonged is in some countries as much a part of the establishment as organized religion. Yet its aims and work are mysteries which are surrounded by tales of strange rituals.
Mail aspects of Cal vis death bore marks of Masonic ritual. During the initiation rites a new recruit stands in his shirt with his left breast bared, the right sleeve rolled up past his elbow' and his left trouser leg pulled up past the knee. On his left foot he wears a shoe, on his right, a slipper, so that he limps as he is led through the temple door by a hangman s rope noosed , around his neck. Today there are thought to be about 9, lodges around the world.
A 19th-century cartoon right mocks the grand master. The Fiery Cross The same criticisms have been leveled at other sinister secret societies which wield power independent of democratic control. The Klan promoted white Protestant interests in public life against Catholics, Jew's and immi- grants as well as Blacks, and its influence spread outside the South.
In , 30 New York City policemen were exposed as Klansmen. During the s and s the Ku Klux Klan opposed the civil rights movement and, despite man ' prosecutions of members for acts of violence, the movement is still active in the South. LI lifler blue eyes stared out from the U m tabloid covers and captivated the nation. Investigators found a shoe imprint on the floor of the wine cellar, a palm print on the door, and a scuff mark on the wall, but none of these clues identified anyone in particular.
A photo of JonBenet s bedroom taken the day after the murder revealed a white teddy bear that seemed unfamiliar to family members; could it help point to the killer? The Victim and the Scene OF THE Crime Child beauty queen JonBenet Ramsey top was found brutally murdered in the basement of her upper-class subur- ban home above , with a lengthy ransom note left taped to a staircase in the house. The tabloids swarmed all over the story, rabid with speculation, and the nation was besieged with images of the adorable JonBenet, performing at a pageant in sequined cow- boy boots and hat, posing innocently with a bunny for an Easter photo.
The other group maintained that the killer was someone already inside the house — a family member. Various pieces of evidence supported each of these theories. Also, neither the roll of duct tape nor the remnants of the nylon cord were found inside the house, leading investigators to con- clude they were brought from outside.
In the middle of the night, the large and labyrinthine Ramsey home would not have been easily navigable by some- one unfamiliar with its layout, and the family heard no stumbling. If not, only someone intimately familiar with the house could have retrieved it from the out-of-the-way basement cabinet in which it was kept. Above, John Ramsey looks on as wife Patsey struggles to answer a question from the media at a press conference.
But she could become violent when pushed too hard to answer questions she found objec- tionable. Was this evidence of a darker side capable of doing harm to her beautiful daughter? As weeks turned into months, the investi- gation seemed stalled. The police depart- ment and the Colorado district attorneys office, under intense scrutiny from the national media, came under fire for mishan- dling evidence.
Evidence was resub- mitted for forensic testing, and more inter- views were conducted, but a suspect with a convincing motive lias yet to emerge. The Ramseys escaped to Vtlanta, where John and Patsey met and married, where JonBenet was born, and where she is now buried.
They continued to denv vehemently anv involvement in the murder. Meanwhile, the Boulder, Colorado grand jury began to weigh evidence, the tabloids continued to offer their wild speculations and the nation was left with the haunting image of those pierc- ing babv blue eves. It lies buried in the heart of this vast continent, encircled by high vol- canic mountains. Here, in December , Dian Fossey was apparently hacked to death in a deeply puzzling murder case. She was also, by temperament, a difficult woman: tongh, sometimes arrogant, and very much a loner.
Dian was the focus of a worldwide conservation effort to preserve the mountain gorilla and lived in the research center of Karisoke, high amid the Virunga mountains. And it was here that her body was found; she had been brutally murdered in her cabin. A fellow American researcher named Wayne McGuire was charged with the crime. He was alleged to have killed Dian to steal her research notes and so complete his own thesis. In this he was said to have been aided by a Rwandan tracker named Emmanuel Rwelekana.
The case against them was based on evidence supplied by a Paris police laboratory. The idea that McGuire killed Dian for her research notes seemed absurd. That the Rwandan authorities seem to have made little effort to stop him leaving and even less to extradite him is suspicious. The tracker Rwelekana was never brought to trial either — he was found hanged in his prison cell under suspicious circumstances.
Although he was allegedly found hanged with his own shirt, the autopsy stated that the cause of death was a broken neck — a feature more com- mon to executions than suicides — and records of his interrogation indicate that he maintained his innocence with dignity throughout, despite being tortured for informa- tion. He could only explain the Caucasian-type hair found in Dians fist, and the blood on his own shoes, by saying that someone was t lying to frame him.
Journalist Nick Gordon, who made a detailed study of the Fossey case, exposed a number of anom- alies. For example, Dian Fossey was supposed to have been hacked to death with a native panga, or hatchet. She was buried here among her friends.
It was odd that a panel from the side of her hut had been broken down, apparently for the mur- derer to gain access. McGuire had kevs to the building and would not have needed to make so noisy an entrance. If anyone had broken in in this wav, Fossev would have had time to get her gun and defend herself.
Had the panel been removed to fake a violent entrance? Nick Gordon's investigation led him to conclude that certain prominent Rwandans were seriously implicated in both the mur- der and a subsequent cover-up. She had also com- piled a report naming almost poachers and describing their operations. Had her investigations led her to know more than was good for her about the illegal traffic in gorillas?
There was a strong suspi- cion that she had been strangled first, then Middle Of Nowhere A light in Dian's cabin at twilight. The remote Karisoke camp is habitually shrouded in heavy mist. Making powerful enemies In Rwanda. Dian Fossev had come upon evidence of gorilla poaching on a large scale and had campaigned vigorously to stop the barbaric trade.
The gorillas that she worked with were highly prized by zoos around the world, and a health young specimen might fetch as much as The heads, hands and feet of gorillas are valued as souvenirs and trophies. Zed was the brother-in-law of the Rwandan president and was involved with his sister, Agathe, the president s wife, in a lucrative gorilla busi- ness.
The thieves were looking for incriminating documents relating to the gorilla traffic. The story about McGuire and the theft of the research notes was quickly concoct- ed as a cover-up. There was certainly one cover-up.
A feeling was widespread among sci- entists working in Rwanda that to re-open the Fossev case and pro- voke hostility from the Rwandan authorities would damage the efforts of conservationists in the country. And so no one created a fuss, not even the U. A mist was qui- etly allowed to descend over the whole affair, as impenetrable as the mists which habitually fall upon the lush Virunga mountains where Dian Fossev lived and died.
In the back seat of the Bronco was Orenthal James O. Simpson, a star running back for the Buffalo Bills, who, after a glorious football career in the 60s and 70s had become a pop- ular actor, sports commentator, and product spokesperson. But this was a very different O. This O. For over an hour, America watched the scene unfold, as Simpson sat in the backseat, a revolver in one hand, a cell-phone in the other, threat- ening to kill himself.
Only an hour, and sixty miles, later, after the Bronco pulled into the driveway of his Brentwood mansion, did O. But the story was far from over. The most outrageous, exhausting, and capti- vating celebrity mystery of the century had just begun, and America would be captivated by its legal pyrotechnics, tawdry details, and over-sized personalities for the next several years. Investigators pieced together a timeline for the night of the murder.
Nicole and friends ate at a restaurant in Brentwood. After leaving with her friends, at around p. At around the same time, O. At around p. After waiting for more than twenty minutes, at around 11 p. The limo driver took O. Then at a. The nation had just recovered from the most So- lent riots of the century, sparked by the acquittal of Los Angeles police officers caught on videotape beating a twenty-five year old black man named Rodney King.
Thus, the trial proceedings, which began on January 24th, were from the start plagued by racial tension. Much of America, however, was con- vinced of O. Simpson had been arrested before for hitting his ex- wife, and a tearful call by Nicole, accus- ing him of domestic abuse, was played before the court to great effect. Most damn- ing was a trail of blood, which lab tests revealed to be O. There was blood on Nicole Simpsons back gate, blood in O. Nicoles blood was also found on a sock in O.
In response, the defense team did not attempt to counter this evidence by showing that O. The defense also challenged the incontrovertibili- ty of the DNA evidence, providing what the prosecution thought to be O. Though one expert witness testified that the odds of the blood coming from someone other than Simpson were one in million, the defense insisted that the blood could COURTROOM drama The Simpson trial revolved around the lawyering of the prosecution team, headed by Marcia Clark, and the "Dream Team" defense, headed by Johnnie Cochran.
On the morning of October 3, , the nation waited impatiently as the jury con- vened to deliberate on the verdict. The trial had lasted nine months, involving wit- nesses, 45, pages of evidence, and 1, exhibits.
But the jury, which had been sequestered for days, took only four hours to reach a conclusion: not guilt '. They would, however, achieve some vindication sixteen months later, when on February 4, , O. Bankrupted, he still maintained his innocence. And the nation continued to split along racial lines over the case; even after the civil trial, polls rev ealed that tire majority of whites believed O.
J to be guilty while the majority of blacks believed him to be innocent. For many, how- ever, the gruesome Brentwood double mur- der remains a mystery. Lee Bailey were jubilant at the not guilty verdict top , as were O. The Goldman family above , however, convinced of O. But his rags-to-riches fairytale ended in tears. Meanwhile a curious story began to circulate in the press, alleging that Maxwell was an agent of Mossad — the Israeli intelligence service. It had a damag- ing effect on the already tumbling value of Maxwell company shares.
In the autumn of the ruin of his business empire threatened, and Robert Maxwell flew south for a break on his boat, the Lady Ghislaine. He spent Sunday, November 4, swimming and taking business phone calls. That night Maxwell dined in Santa Cruz, Tenerife, before setting out to sea again. He was still awake at a. But the next morning, though the ship was searched, and searched again, Robert Maxwell had vanished. A body is found in the Atlantic His family was informed, and a satellite dis- tress signal was put out.
How had he died? Was it an accident, suicide or murder? The verdict of the autopsy carried out on Gran Canaria stated that Maxwell had died of a coronary thrombosis or heart attack. But it was not clear whether the tycoon had first succumbed and then fallen into the water, or fallen first and had a heart attack in the sea.
Then in January the French magazine Paris Match published the verdict of a sec- ond post mortem conducted in Israel. A video recording of this examination appeared to reveal bruising on Maxwells face and body. Two French forensic experts who studied the video concluded that the tycoon had received several heavy blows before his death, which had fractured his nose and torn his ear. British pathologists, howev- er, dismissed all talk of foul play. Robert Maxwells charisma was matched by a reputation as a bully and cheat.
When his pound corpse was winched from the sea by helicopter in the shock waves rippled around the world for years afterwards. Maxwell rose to become a figure of national importance in July when he bought Mirror Group Newspapers Ltd. He also headed several notable char- ities and indulged his love of soccer by buy- ing his local team, Oxford United. But the tycoon overreached himself in his desire to create a global communications empire through purchases which included the New York Daily News.
The policies did not apply in the case of death by natural causes or suicide. He believed it more likely that Maxwell had died by drowning than of a heart attack. This meant that the four possibilities now were: Accident: Maxwell might have had a dizzy spell, slipped and fallen into the sea where he drowned. However, it was a calm night and there was a railing round the deck. Heart attack: Maxwell was under severe stress, hugely overweight and suffered from a lung complaint.
However, it is likely that after a seizure he would have fallen to the deck, not into the water. Suicide: Dr. West identified injuries to Maxwells left hand and a tearing of the left shoulder muscles. This, said Dr. West, was a common pattern of injury among some peo- ple who kill themselves by jumping from high places.
On his return to London he might have faced imprisonment. Maxwell had been unchar- acteristically indecisive before his death, first wanting his sons to fly to him to discuss business matters, then coun- termanding the order to give himself more time to think.
Did he conclude that there was no way out? On the last day he had called for his private jet to circle round the yacht as if in a last proud flypast. He had locked his stateroom on the yacht before venturing onto the deck for the last time. Why lock the door if he was only going out for a breath of air?
The final possibility Dr. West did not dismiss the possibility of murder — he simply found no evidence either for or against it. The injuries on the body could be explained by it striking either the ship or floating objects in the water. Maxwell had no shortage of enemies.
No suspicions attached to the crew, but it would not be impossible for a hit team to stalk the undefended yacht by night, Any powerful victim of his business malpractices would The End Though Robert Maxwell lived in Britain, his funeral was held in Israel at the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. Maxwells interests included arms dealing, and if he were an agent of Mossad, his weapons traffic in the Middle East could have made him a target for Arab assassins. There are other shadowy possibilities.
Since his death it has emerged that Maxwell had been investigated several times by the FBI on suspicion of spying for the Soviet Union. The files were censored so that it is impossible to say whether conclusive evi- dence was found against the tycoon, but this contributes yet auother dimension to the mystery of Maxwells death.
In the remote Tunguska Basin, a blast estimated to be equal in energy to the detonation of 30 mil- lion tons of high explosive devastated the that the actual site of the mystery blast remained uninvestigated by scientists for many years. Only in did a Soviet research team arrive at the scene, and its members were mystified by what they saw. As they approached the center of the oval-shaped blast area, the investigators expected to discover evi- dence of a meteorite colli- sion.
But they found no hunks of meteoritic rock. Colliding explosively at Tunguska, it may have passed through the planet and emerged on the other side, in the North Atlantic although there is no evidence of a cor- responding explosion here. A more orthodox dieoiy — and the current favorite among scientists — proposes that the disaster was caused by a comet exploding over- head. Consisting of ice and dust, with a luminous, trail- ing gas cloud, a comet would have left no meteoric fragments after deto- nating.
However, because a comet is normal- ly seen coming from some distance away, and because it is not certain that an explod- ing comet would change radiation levels, the Tunguska event provokes continued debate. Leonid Kulik above right investigated the impact site. The fireball which appeared suddenly in the sky materialized not long after dawn on June 30, with a mon- strous flash and bang that caused villagers as far as miles away to run in terror through the streets.
Some inhabitants of the sparsely populated region were badly burnt or hurled through the air by die shock waves. Within a radius of some 40 miles, forests were laid to waste and herds of charred reindeer lay among the uprooted trees. Although the facts were reported at the time, the region was so bleak and remote Extraterrestrial activity What happened at Tunguska has fascinated both scientists and students of the paranor- mal.
According to some reports, the soil in the devastated area was highly radioactive, and in a Russian author, Alexander Kazantsev, proposed in a science-fiction storv that the disaster resulted from a nuclear explosion in an atomic-powered alien space- craft flying overhead. This fanciful theory has lingered on among UFO aficionados, although it is wholly unsupported by any evi- dence. In the s, two British physicists, A. Jackson and M. Nor was there a central crater; the trees at the heart of the blast area were relatively undamaged.
And his successors have not had much more luck in what has proved to be one of the most enduring mysteries of the 20th century. Booby-trapped booty? The story began in Roosevelt among other backers, the quest. The searchers got 90 feet down. It appeared that whoever made the Monev Pit as it was dubbed had also booby-trapped it with flood tunnels dug from die oceans edge. Oak Islands fame spread with diese and all subsequent attempts to unlock its secrets.
In the 20th century new attempts were made on the treasure with heavy bulldozers, rotary drills, turbine pumps and crawler cranes. The original shaft was so damaged by flooding, digging and cave-ins diat it became a huge, maimed crater, and both flood tunnels were destroyed. In a causeway was built to the island, and in the SOs two separate visitor centers were set up by rival treasure companies.
This wooden box is one of the tantalizing clues that has been dug up on Oak Island. But the quest continues to the present day. In newspapers published pho- tographs taken in one borehole some feet deep. Treasure-seeker Dan Blankenship lowered a video camera into the murky abyss and found what he believes to be clear evi- Serious researchers have dismissed the idea that the Money Pit could have been the work of pirates. For, although Carbon dating of its timbers has suggested that it might have been built during the 16th century, it would have required a more disciplined workforce and more advanced engineering skills than buccaneers could have mustered.
Other equally improbable theories have suggested that it was built to conceal Marie Antoinette's jewels or even a cache of Shakespeare's plays. The Titanic went down with the loss of more than 1, lives. Several mysteries surrounded her grim fate, and some were not solved until after September 1, , when world headlines proclaimed that the wreck of the Titanic had been found.
On that morning, using deep- sea sonar search aids, Dr. Robert D. Ballard and a joint French-American team located the lost ship on the floor of the Atlantic. From the depths of the ocean came photographs of the giant liners silverware and of glass chandeliers that still hung in place. In ten further descents, Ballard and his team explored much of the ship and the debris field around her broken hull. How had the iceberg caused such damage?
The ship goes down Many historians believed that the impact of the ice must have torn a long gash in the hull. There was no single ice wound. What had happened was that the ships starboard bow plates had buckled under the impact of the collision with the iceberg, the rivets had popped from their sockets, and water had rushed in through cracks between plates no more than a few inches wide.
Again, conventional views about the disaster held that, flooded at the prow, the great ship sank head- first and intact into the Atlantic. Indeed, two inquiries in concluded that the ship went down in one piece. Some eve- witnesses had reported, hovv- ever, that the ship had in fact broken in tw T o: the bow plunged while the stern brieflv righted itself before turning almost ver- tical and then sinking at speed. These witnesses were proved right by Ballard's findings.
The hull was found snapped in two on the ocean floor, the segments 1, feet apart and pointing in different directions. Their posi- tion clearly indicated that the liner had bro- ken apart at or near the surface. Doomed Colossus Only people survived the Titanic sinking. Afterwards, new laws demanded that liners should have one space on a lifeboat for each passenger. As the stern rose out of the w'ater, the hull snapped under the intolerable strain of the tilt and the tw'o segments sank independent- ly, spilling a wealth of debris from the shattered midsection.
Finds have included tons of coal from the breached boiler rooms, thou- sands of bottles of wine and champagne, kitchen utensils, light fixtures, bathtubs, chamber pots and silver serving trays. The empty safe Are there greater riches to be recovered? In 19S0, five years before Ballard located the liner, I loll wood had produced a film called Raise the Titanic , in which assorted treasure-seekers tried to recover rare minerals from the wreck. The theme echoed a widespread belief that — given the w ealth of many passengers — for- tunes in gold and jewelry await discover - on the ocean bed.
It is known that some items of exceptional value were carried on the Titanic, among them a gold-covered copy of the Ruha'iyat of Omar Khayyam which had more than 1, precious stones studding its binding. Perhaps more research will reveal treasure. For future investigators the problem is not only a technological one; it has moral and legal dimensions.
But a certain unease about her case lingered on. In , an article published in France stated doubts as to her guilt. He was a violent drunk, and the marriage only lasted 1 1 years. But while living with him in Java she had become fascinated by the local dancing girls and their erotic arts.
Her dances, she said, demanded nudity. Scoring an instantaneous hit by dancing naked but for a few bangles, Mata Hari became a famous courtesan whose reputation spread to all the capitals of Europe. Princes, dukes, ministers and generals paid court to her, and she commanded immense fees for her favors. This was not ' especially sinister. Code name H21 French prosecutors were later to claim that by this time Mata Hari was already a German spy with the opera- tional number of H21 H being short for Holland, where she lived for a few months in However, for another year.
Allied counter-intelligence ser- vices could find no grounds for arresting her. It was true that she had many male friends in diplomatic circles, including neutral Dutch, Swedish and Spanish attaches through whom she could pass information to the Germans.
But there was no proof that she did so. The plain fact was that the courtesan had male friends in many important circles. Threatened in with deportation from France, Mata Hari vehemently protest- ed that she had never spied for the Kaiser — but that if the F rench wanted to employ her, she knew many high-ranking Germans from whom valuable information might be gleaned.
Captain Georges Ladoux of the Deuxieme Bureau, the French intelligence service, pretended to believe her, and together they discussed an assignment in which she would travel to German-occupied The Courtesan Mata Hari made no secret of her profession. Belgium and seduce the German Crown Prince in return for a reward of a million francs. To him Mata Hari admitted being a spy. Mata Hari moved to Madrid where she seduced the German military attache.
Major Arnold Kalle. He gave her some worthless gossip and disinformation, which she hoped to pass on to her new spv- master in Paris. On her return to Paris on January 3, Mata Hari intended to collect a rew ard from Ladoux, but instead she was arrested at the Ely see Palace Hotel by the French police on February 13, During her inter- rogation and subsequent trial she w r as questioned closelv about the 3, pesetas she had received from Kalle. The prosecu- tion alleged that it came from German Intelligence.
She has, it seems, renounced her claim to Indian birth and become Berlinoise. She speaks German with a slight Eastern accent. And for every German that the prosecution named, she countered with an exalted Frenchman. Jules Cambon, the secretary-general of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, had been one of her lovers and w as even called as a witness for the defense. The war is not a sufficient reason to stop me from being a cosmopolitan.
I am a neutral, but my sympathies are for France. If that does not satisfy you, do as you will. It may well be that Mata Hari did dabble in espionage, but whether she was a genuine secret agent, code-named and committed to the German cause, remains much more doubtful. What is certain is that she was unlucky to have been apprehended at a time of national unrest, w r hen France was facing mutinies at the front and fears of subversion at home.
In this climate, despite a desperate fight by her lawyers for a reprieve, Mata Haris fate was sealed. Found guilt and sentenced to death, she w'as taken to the barracks at Vincennes earlv in the morning of October 15, There, she placed herself against a stake where a cord w'as knotted around her waist. Mata Hari comported herself with great courage as the firing squad assembled, and refused the bandage for her eyes.
For one thing, the few human remains discovered at the mine did not suggest that die whole family and their servants — 11 people — had been disposed of there. Bodies do not simply turn to ash when burned in petrol and soaked in acid.
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