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Carvacrol is the main compound which characterizes the EOs of this species. In addition, discrete amounts of spathulenol Characterization of rhizobial isolates nodulating Millettia pinnata in India. Millettia pinnata Synonym Pongamia pinnata is a viable source of oil for the mushrooming biofuel industry, source for agroforestry, urban landscaping, and the bio-amelioration of degraded lands.

It also helps in maintaining soil fertility through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, not much work is reported on classification and characterization of the rhizobia associated with this plant. In the present study, an attempt was made to isolate rhizobial strains nodulating Millettia from soils collected from southern regions of India.

The isolates were characterized using numerical taxonomy, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and cross nodulation ability. The results showed high phenotypic and genetic diversity among the rhizobia symbiotic with Millattia pinnata. The isolates formed five clusters at similarity level of 0.

Among these isolates, some isolates could grow in a pH range of 4. These results offered the first systematic information about the microsymbionts of M. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. Cytotoxic Constituents from bark and leaves of Amyris pinnata Kunth. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available From leaves and bark of Amyris pinnata Kunth twelve compounds were isolated, corresponding to six lignans , three coumarins , a sesquiterpene 10, an oxazole alkaloid 11, and a prenylated flavonoid 12,.

C ytotoxicity against leukemia, solid tumors, and normal cells was evaluated for all isolated compounds. Lignans were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds occurring in A. Biofibres from biofuel industrial byproduct-Pongamia pinnata seed hull. These seed hulls serve as a potential source for cellulose fibres which can be exploited as reinforcement in composites.

These seed hulls were processed using chlorination and alkaline extraction process in order to isolate cellulose fibres. The sequential chlorination and alkaline treatment stemmed to the isolation of cellulose fibres from P. The isolated cellulose fibres possessed enhanced morphological, thermal, and crystalline properties in comparison with P. These cellulose microfibres may potentially find application as biofillers in biodegradable composites by augmenting their properties.

Growth performance and phytoremediation ability of Azolla pinnata Growth performance and phytoremediation ability of Azolla pinnata in produced water Toxicity symptoms of produced water on the plant include chlorosis, frond The aquatic macrophyte used for this experiment was Microcosm investigation on phytoremediation of Cr using Azolla pinnata. The extent of Chromium Cr pollution in Singrauli industrial region, India was assessed and phytoremediation capacity of a small water fern, Azolla pinnata R.

BR Azollaceae was observed to purify waters polluted by Cr under microcosm condition. Azolla pinnata endemic to India is a potential hyper-accumulator of heavy metals. In the Azolla pinnata tissues, the concentration of couple of the ionic forms of Cr under investigation ranged from to mg kg -1 dry mass dm ; the highest level being found for Cr III containing solution. Quercitrin: an antileishmanial flavonoid glycoside from Kalanchoe pinnata.

This is the first time that antileishmanial activity is demonstrated for a flavonoid glycoside. Full Text Available Many studies showed that application of Azolla pinnata as biofertilizer improved soil fertility some agricultural crops, including rice, whereas farmers in Lampung consider that A.

Information on effects A. A study was carried out to investigate effects of different rates of A. A well-irrigated paddy field was incorporated with A. Results: application of A. Application of A. Azolla pinnata growth performance in different water sources. Azolla pinnata R. Four types of water sources waste water, drain water, paddy field water and distilled water each with different nutrient contents were used to grow and evaluate the growth performance of A.

Four water sources with different nutrient contents; waste, drain, paddy and distilled water as control were used to evaluate the growth performance of A. Generally, irrespective of the types of water sources there were increased in plant biomass from the initial biomass e. The increased in biomass although fluctuated with time was consistently higher in drain water compared to increased in biomass for other water sources. Of the four water sources, drain water with relatively higher nitrate concentration 0.

Evaluation of wound healing, anti-microbial and antioxidant potential of Pongamia pinnata in wistar rats. Conclusion: Increased wound contraction and tensile strength, augmented hydroxyproline and hexosamine content, antioxidative activity and moderate antimicrobial activity support the early wound healing exhibited by P. Induction in cytokine production may be one of the mechanisms in accelerating the wound healing. Results suggest that P. The antileishmanial activity assessment of unusual flavonoids from Kalanchoe pinnata.

The importance of flavonoids for the antileishmanial activity of Kalanchoe pinnata was previously demonstrated by the isolation of quercitrin, a potent antileishmanial flavonoid. In the present study, the aqueous leaf extract from the medicinal plant K. Because of its restricted occurrence and its abundance in K. The three flavonoids were tested separately against Leishmania amazonenis amastigotes in comparison with quercitrin, quercetin and afzelin.

The quercetin aglycone - type structure, as well as a rhamnosyl unit linked at C-3, seem to be important for antileishmanial activity. Induction of wound-periderm-like tissue in Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. Crassulaceae leaves as a defence response to high UV-B radiation levels. UV-B radiation can be stressful for plants and cause morphological and biochemical changes.

Kalanchoe pinnata is a CAM leaf-succulent species distributed in hot and dry regions, and is rich in flavonoids, which are considered to be protective against UV-B radiation. This study aims to verify if K. The plants were treated with the same photoperiod, photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and daily watering system. Fragments of the middle third of the leaf blade and petiole were dehydrated and then embedded in historesin and sectioned in a rotary microtome.

Microchemical analyses by optical microscopy were performed on fresh material with Sudan III, Sudan IV and phloroglucinol, and analysed using fluorescence microscopy. Supplemental UV-B radiation caused leaf curling and the formation of brown areas on the leaves. These brown areas developed into a protective tissue on the adaxial side of the leaf, but only in directly exposed regions.

Anatomically, this protective tissue was similar to a wound-periderm, with outer layer cell walls impregnated with suberin and lignin. This is the first report of wound-periderm formation in leaves in response to UV-B radiation. This protective tissue could be important for the survival of the species in desert regions under high UV-B stress conditions. For Permissions, please email: journals. Millettia pinnata L. In this review, we presented several aspects about the recent research progress in molecular biology of M.

We descrived several types of molecular markers used to assess the genetic diversity and phylogeny of this species, genome and transcriptome analyses based on high-throughput sequencing platform accomplished for this species, and several gene and genomic sequences of this species isolated for further research. Finally, based on the current research progress, we proposed some orientations for future molecular biology research on M.

The tensile properties of single sugar palm Arenga pinnata fibre. This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination.

The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3. Floating ferns of the genus Azolla detach their roots under stress conditions, a unique adaptive response termed rapid root abscission.

The duration of the time lag decreased in response to high pH and high temperature whereas high light intensity increased the time lag and markedly lowered the rate of abscission. Exposure of A. The finding of polyamine-induced rapid root abscission provides a facile assay for further study of the mode of action of polyamines in plant stress responses.

Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata Fabaceae and cross-amplification in related species. Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata Fabaceae. Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M.

For chloroplast loci, two to six alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0. For mitochondrial loci, two to four alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity ranged from 0. Sixteen of the 17 screened markers could be successfully amplified in the related species M. The 17 microsatellite markers developed here exhibited variation in M.

Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata Fabaceae and cross-amplification in related species1. Premise of the study: Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata Fabaceae.

Methods and Results: Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M. Conclusions: The 17 microsatellite markers developed here exhibited variation in M. Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata Fabaceae and cross-amplification in related species 1. For mitochon Panigrahi atau Pongamia pinnata L. Piere adalah tumbuhan legum yang menghasilkan biji dengan kandungan minyak yang cocok untuk biodiesel.

Fenologi dan polinasi pada tanaman ini dipantau dan dimanipulasi untuk meningkatkan pembentukan biji dan hasil panen. Musim berbunga di Kununurra berlangsung selama satu bulan dari awal Oktober dan pembungaan terjadi tidak bersamaan baik pada satu tanaman maupun di antara tanaman yang berbeda. Dua spesies lebah lokal sebagai polinator, Full Text Available Procedure of manufacturing K.

Yield of CecP1 after heating and sterilizing filtration was 0. The water extract of K. Wild-type K. Due to immunomodulating activity, wild-type K. Immunomodulating and microbicide activity of K. Full Text Available Previously transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata plants producing an antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 CecP1 have been reported. Now we report biological testing K. The drug constitutes the whole juice from K. A microbicide activity of CecP1 against an animal fungal pathogen in vivo was demonstrated for the first time.

However, a favorable therapeutic effect of the transgenic K. A commercial fungicide preparation clotrimazole eliminated C. But in contrast to K. Taken together, our results allow assumption that CecP1-enriched K. Procedure of manufacturing K. Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Conclusions: The observed decrease in body weight, blood glucose and cholesterol level suggests that the aqueous K.

The observed adverse effect on alkaline phosphatase activity may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and K. Previously transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata plants producing an antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 CecP1 have been reported. Oral metabolism and efficacy of Kalanchoe pinnata flavonoids in a murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that threatens million people worldwide. In a search for new antileishmanial drugs, the in vitro activity of flavonoids from Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae was previously demonstrated in infected cells. In order to demonstrate the safety and oral activity of K. These flavonoids were as effective as the crude K. Our results indicate that K.

Flowers from Kalanchoe pinnata are a rich source of T cell-suppressive flavonoids. The chemical composition and immunosuppressive potential of the flowers from Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae were investigated. We found that the aqueous flower extract was more active than the leaf extract in inhibiting murine T cell mitogenesis in vitro. Along with quercetin, four quercetin glycosyl conjugates were obtained, including quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside and quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, which are described for the first time in K.

All flavonoids inhibited murine T cell mitogenesis and IL-2 and IL-4 production without cell toxicity. This is the first report on the pharmacological activity of flowers of a Kalanchoe species, which are not used for curative purposes. Our findings show that K. Wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. The extract of K. On day 11, animals treated with the ethanolic leaf extract exhibited The hydroxyproline content of extract treated animals was higher, as compared to control and the standard groups.

Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that K. The increased rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the extract treated animals supports the claims made by traditional healers of the benefits obtained from the medicinal use of K. Full Text Available Aquatic fern Azolla pinnata comprises significant high food value with a good proportion of protein, vitamins, and minerals.

This study was carried out to examine the effect of fresh A. Post fingerlings of B. However, a significantly higher profit rate The poorest performance was observed in fish fed completely with A. Rhizobium pongamiae sp.

Full Text Available Pongamia pinnata has an added advantage of N2-fixing ability and tolerance to stress conditions as compared with other biodiesel crops. Isolate VKLR exhibits higher tolerance to the prevailing adverse conditions, for example, salt stress, elevated temperatures and alkalinity.

Rhizobium pongamiae may possess specific traits that can be transferred to other rhizobia through biotechnological tools and can be directly used as inoculants for reclamation of wasteland; hence, they are very important from both economic and environmental prospects. Full Text Available A native isolate of the colonial benthic diatom Staurosirella pinnata was cultivated for biosilica production.

The silicified cell walls frustules were used as a source of homogeneous and structurally predictable porous biosilica for dye trapping and random laser applications. This was coupled with the extraction of lipids from biomass showing potential to fabricate photoactive composite materials sustainably. The strain was selected for its ease of growth in culture and harvesting.

Biosilica and lipids were obtained at the end of growth in indoor photobioreactors. Frustules were structurally characterized microscopically and their chemistry analyzed with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The effect of dye trapping property in conveying Rho B emission to frustules, with enhancement of scattering events, was analyzed on Rho B doped polyacrylamide gels filled or not with frustules.

Amplified spontaneous emission was recorded at increasing pump power indicating the onset of a random laser effect in frustule filled gels at lower power threshold compared to unfilled matrices. A native isolate of the colonial benthic diatom Staurosirella pinnata was cultivated for biosilica production. Phytoremediation of Hg and Cd from industrial effluents using an aquatic free floating macrophyte Azolla pinnata.

The level of heavy metal pollution in Singrauli, an industrial region in India, was assessed and the phytoremediation capacity of a small water fern, Azolla pinnata R. BR Azollaceae , was observed to purify waters polluted by two heavy metals, i. Azolla pinnata is endemic to India and is an abundant and easy-growing free-floating water fern usually found in the rice fields, polluted ponds, and reservoirs of India. The study revealed an inhibition of Azolla pinnata growth by In the tissues of Azolla pinnata , the concentration of selected heavy metals during investigation was recorded between and mgKg -1 dry mass, with the highest levelfoundfor Cd II treatment at 3.

Agroforestry parklands provide multiple valuable services to farmers in the Southern Peanut Basin of Senegal. In order to understand ecosystem services provided by Cordyla pinnata agroforestry parkland, we conducted a study in the rural community of Keur Samba Gueye Fatick, Senegal.

The methodological approach Antihypertensive activities of the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae in high salt-loaded rats. The leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae are used in Cameroon folk medicine to manage many diseases such as cardiovascular dysfunctions. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the activities of aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe pinnata on the blood pressure of normotensive rat NTR and salt hypertensive rats SHR , as well as its antioxidant properties.

At the end of this experimental period, systolic arterial pressure SAP , diastolic arterial pressure DAP and heart rate HR were measured by the invasive method. Some oxidative stress biomarkers reduced glutathione GSH , superoxide dismutase SOD , nitric monoxide NO were evaluated in heart, aorta, liver and kidney. NO level was indirectly evaluated by measuring nitrite concentration. Kalanchoe pinnata extract prevented significantly the increase of systolic and diastolic arterial pressures in high salt-loaded rats SHR.

No significant change was recorded in heart rate of those rats. The plant extract improved antioxidant status in various organs, but more potently in aorta. Thus, antioxidant and modulatory effects of Kalanchoe pinnata at the vasculature might be of preponderant contribution to its overall antihypertensive activity.

The work demonstrated that the concomitant administration of high-salt and the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata elicits prevention of salt-induced hypertension in rat. Karakteristik Bubuk Instan Cemcem spondiaz pinnata lf kurz. Empirically, the beverage is mentioned for treating coughs, increasing appetite, and body refreshment.

Besides used as a beverage, Cemcem leafs are also used as a flavor enhancer of fish products. The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of Cemcem instant powder produced by encapsulation using maltodextrin and dried by the thin layer drying method.

Cemcem instant powder was then analyzed its content of vitamin C, total phenols, tannins, antioxidant capacity, water cntent, ash content, and solubility. The result showed that cemcem instant powder which was produced by 24 hours of maceration time has the best characteristics and potential to be developed as a natural antioxidant products.

It has the highest of total phenol, tannin, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity. The content of vitamin C, total phenol, and tannin were The antioxidant activity of cemcem instant powder which analyzed by DPPH method was about There are 17 compounds detected by GC-MS, these compounds belonged alkenesalcoholsphenols compounds and esters of fatty acidsThe whole compounds were the building blocks of flavor cemcem leaves.

Keywords : Characteristic of cemcem instant powder, antioxidant capacity, andflavor compounds of cemcem leaves. Full Text Available For identifying the synergistic compounds from Pongamia pinnata , an approach based on high-speed counter-current chromatography HSCCC combined with isobolographic analysis was designed to detect the synergistic effects in the complex mixture [ This research aimed to look the influence of the combination of green fertilizer Azolla pinnata with guano toward the growth and production of pakchoy and to obtain the best treatment from Azolla pinnata with guano toward pakchoy.

This research was conducted at the experimental farm of Farming Faculty of Riau University. This research was accomplished during 3 months that was from June to August Semi-mangroves form a group of transitional species between glycophytes and halophytes, and hold unique potential for learning molecular mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance.

Millettia pinnata is a semi-mangrove plant that can survive a wide range of saline conditions in the absence of specialized morphological and physiological traits. Sodium influx by Azolla pinnata fronds was minimum in the presence of NO 3 -. Efflux of sodium was minimum in urea and NO 3 - grown fronds. A low residual sodium was observed in the fronds incubated in NO 3 - and urea supplemented media. Ethanolic Extract from Various Areas. The results of the study showed that IC50 of the extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor, and Tangerang Selatan city is Meanwhile, IC50 of quersetin which has antidiabetic activity is The results showed that Cocor Bebek leaves Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.

However, the activity is lesser than quercetin. Toxicological analysis and effectiveness of oral Kalanchoe pinnata on a human case of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is an extremely difficult disease to treat. Previously, it was shown that oral Kalanchoe pinnata Kp leaf extract is strongly effective against murine leishmaniasis. Here, it is shown that the serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase ALT , aspartate-aminotransferase AST , urea and alkaline phosphatase were unchanged in mice orally treated with supraoptimal Kp doses for 30 days, indicating the absence of chronic toxicity to the liver, heart or kidney.

Additionally, evidence is presented that human leishmaniasis may also be controlled with oral Kp. During the Kp treatment, the lesion stopped growing and slightly decreased. No adverse reactions or toxicity was observed. This study reports for the first time that Kalanchoe pinnata contains substances potentially active and safe for the oral treatment of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied.

The result of the study suggested that 0. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating. Karanja Pongamia pinnata biodiesel blend B5 as internal combustion engine fuel. In this study, fuel characteristics of biodiesel abstracted from Karanja Pongamia pinnata were evaluated and compared with petroleum diesel. Various fuel properties such as density, viscosity, calorific value, ash content, cloud point, pour points, induction period and flash point were evaluated according to ASTM standards.

Ultraviolet-B radiation effects on phenolic profile and flavonoid content of Kalanchoe pinnata. Ultraviolet-B radiation is an important abiotic factor that can stimulate the production of secondary metabolites, including polyphenolic compounds. Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae is a medicinal plant popularly used in Brazil for treating wounds and inflammation. This species is rich in phenolic compounds, which could account for some of its biological activities, including antileishmanial, antihypertensive and antibacterial properties.

We investigated the effects of supplemental UV-B radiation on the phenolic profile, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content of leaves of K. Supplemental UV-B radiation enhanced the total flavonoid content of the leaf extracts, without affecting the antioxidant activity or yield of extracts. UV-B radiation is proposed as a supplemental light source in K. Hydrogen production in a safe, enviromentally friendly, and inexpensive is an attempt to realize energy needs commercially, one of them is electrolysis.

Many attempts which relate with water electrolysis had been conducted to produce hydrogen, for example by using wastewater as water substitution. The presence of dahlia pinnata tuber starch apparently makes the covering on surface of the electrode so the catalytic activity of the electrode is reduced.

Covering is mostly affected by dahlia pinnata tuber starch concentration. Wastewater which contains starch, especially dahlia pinnata tuber starch, obviously is not good enough because hydrogen production rate becomes obstructed. Effect of ultravilolet-B 0. Growth measured as increment in dry weight reduced considerably due to all UV-B treatments. However, the reduction was found to be severe in A. The level of UV-absorbing compound flavonoids increased significantly in A.

Proline accumulation also showed a similar trend. Our comparative studies indicate A. The application dosage of Azolla pinnata in fresh and powder form as organic fertilizer on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of rice plant. The yield of rice plants is strongly influenced by N fertilizer. Nitrogen in rice plants has roles in vegetative growth, tiller formation and increasing yield through rice protein formation. Nitrogen supplied from organic fertilizers is better than inorganic fertilizers that may have environmental problem effects.

Organic fertilizers from Azolla pinnata water fern contain higher N than other organic fertilizers. Symbiosis between A. Composted form can be ground into powder which passes through mesh sieve. Preparation of compost powder of A. The objective of this research was to compare the effect of the use of fresh A. The treatments applied were fresh A. The results showed that incorporation of fresh A. This study suggested the benefits of A.

A study on the Phytoremediation Potential of Azolla pinnata under laboratory conditions. Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination in aquatic environments has become one of the major environmental problems all over the world. Phytoremediation is a plant based technology that utilizes special plants known as hyperaccumulators to purify heavy metal contaminated sites. Hyperaccumulators are capable of absorbing heavy metals in greater concentrations.

Azolla pinnata is an aquatic macrophyte that has been earmarked for its hyperaccumulation ability. This green technology is often more favoured over conventional methods due to its low cost, low environmental impacts and wider public acceptance. This study was conducted under laboratory conditions to assess the ability of A.

In the first experiment, A. Experiments were carried out separately for Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations for 7 days. The concentrations of heavy metals used in the experiments largely agreed with the environmentally measured values, although in certain experiments, the initial concentrations exceeded the environmental pollution levels. At the end of the experiments toxic symptoms were observed in plats exposed to Cd and Ni.

The findings of. Lut Desert , Iran. Iran is a large country with several desert regions. Some of the world's most prominent Yardangs very long, parallel ridges and depressions have been wind eroded in these desert dry lake bed sediments.

At the left of the photo is a large field of sand dunes at right angles to the wind. Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field. Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat.

This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field. The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. Kazakoff, Stephen H. Pongamia pinnata syn. Millettia pinnata is a novel, fast-growing arboreal legume that bears prolific quantities of oil-rich seeds suitable for the production of biodiesel and aviation biofuel.

Desert Pavement Studies. Combining plan view information from aerial photography showing details of stream channels on desert pavement surfaces with process-based erosion models, a high-resolution, synthetic topography DEM Combining plan view information from aerial photography showing details of stream channels on desert pavement surfaces with process-based erosion models, a high-resolution, "synthetic topography" DEM Con solo tres lagunas en serie plantadas con A.

A physicochemical study of sugar palm Arenga Pinnata starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol. Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D. The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated.

The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

Selenium hyperaccumulation - Astragalus bisulcatus, Cardamine hupingshanensis and Stanleya pinnata - may be useful for agromining selenium-rich soils. Selenium hyperaccumulator plants like Stanleya pinnata , Astragalus bisulcatus and the newly discovered Se-accumulator Cardamine hupingshanensis may play an important role in the Se cycle from soil to plant to human in China. Se-hyperaccumulators can be used for agromining or for phytoremediation of Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb.

It was obtained for K. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K.

In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species. Minerals in deserts.

Almost any kind of mineral deposit can occur in desert areas, and the lack of vegetation and soil cover makes finding them easier. Some kinds of deposits, though, are more likely to occur in deserts than elsewhere. Some of these result from processes genetically related to the present desert climate that improved lower grade deposits of ore. One such process, termed secondary enrichment, is most effective in areas with deep water tables, and many low-grade copper, silver, and uranium deposits have been converted into mineable ore by the downward migration and redeposition of soluble metals.

In a desert terrane, placer processes are effective whenever running water flowing over steep slopes erodes outcropping ore bodies and transports and concentrates the heavier ore minerals at lower levels, thus converting low-grade or hard-to-mine bedrock deposits into economically workable concentrations. Other kinds of deposits are better preserved in deserts because the lower rainfall at the surface, and the lower volume of flow and the greater depths to groundwater, result in less destruction of soluble ores; deposits of salines and phosphates are the most notable ores affected by these factors.

Still other ore deposits are created as a consequence of the arid climate, mostly because the high evaporation rates operating on standing bodies of water produce brines that can lead directly to concentrations of salts and indirectly to secondary minerals, such as zeolites, that are produced by reaction of silicate minerals with saline waters.

Phytoremediation of domestic wastewaters in free water surface constructed wetlands using Azolla pinnata. Two constructed wetlands, one with Azolla pinnata plant CW1 and the other without CW2 for treating domestic wastewaters were developed. The experiments were conducted in two dry and wet seasons simultaneously. Results showed considerable reductions in all parameters and metals including Zn in CW1 compared with CW2 in the two seasons considered while Pb and Mn were not detected throughout the study.

Zn concentration levels reduced significantly in both seasons just as removal efficiencies of There were no significant differences in the removal efficiencies of Fe in both seasons as Azolla pinnata has proved effective in domestic wastewater phytoremediation studies.

Test results of pongamia pinnata methyl esters with direct injection diesel engine. Pongamia Pinnata oil is considered as a potential source of biodiesel production in Pakistan. When selecting source for commercial production of biodiesel several criteria are used. In this research performance and emissions characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine running on Pongamia Pinnata methyl esters were discussed. Discussion was supported by an analysis of combustion characteristics derived from in-cylinder pressure data.

Engine running on a neat biodiesel showed higher brake specific fuel consumption and lower brake fuel conversion efficiency at all loads, whereas emissions were improved except of carbon monoxide emission at high loads. Decrease in brake efficiency and reduction of nitrogen oxides emissions were attributed solely to the change in the rate of heat release.

Deposits on fuel infector nozzle were observed when engine was running on the neat biodiesel. Full Text Available Millettia pinnata L. Dua spesies lebah lokal sebagai polinator, Megachile sp. Hal ini mungkin terjadi karena sedikitnya volume nektar yang dihasilkan 1. Kunjungan lebah madu Apis mellifera meningkatkan hasil panen biji dari menjadi 4.

Bio diesel synthesis from pongamia pinnata oil over modified CeO2 catalysts. The oxide catalysts were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by techniques such as NH 3 -Tpd for surface acidity, CO 2 -Tpd for surface basicity and powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity. The effect of nature of the catalyst, methanol to P-oil molar ratio and reaction time in esterification as well as in transesterification was investigated.

The catalytic materials were reactive d and reused for five reaction cycles and the results showed that the ceria based catalysts have reasonably good reusability both in esterification and transesterification reaction.

The test results also revealed that the CeO 2 -ZrO 2 modified with Mg O could have potential for use in the large scale bio diesel production. Full Text Available Salah satu hal terpenting dalam penyediaan bibit tanaman adalah media yang digunakan dalam pembibitan.

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh media kompos yang diberikan dan asal benih kranji Pongamia pinnata terhadap pertumbuhan tinggi bibit di persemaian. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan benih yang berasal dari Bangka, Carita, Batukaras dan banyuwangi. Masing-masing bibit hasil perkecambahan dilakukan penyapihan dalam polybag dan dilakukan pengukuran sebanyak 3 kali. Pembibitan tanaman kranji lebih membutuhkan pupuk kompos sebagai pemberi nutrisi dan perbaikan struktur media.

Media is an important in the making seedling and it use in the production of cultivated seeds have economic value, is easily available and the range of non-destructive. Determination of nutrients in the medium nursery is one of the factors to produce seedlings with a good quality. The aim of research is produce of good seedling based on the compost type conventional and brand and origin of seed Bangka, Carita and Banyuwangi.

Compost, besides as fertilizer also contribute improving the structure of media for producing kranji Pongamia pinnata seedlings. Gastroprotective activity of the hydroethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.

Gopherus agassizii: Desert tortoise. The desert tortoise is one of four allopatric North American tortoises. Auffenberg divided the genus Gopherus consisting of four species, G. Bramble , using morphological and palaeontological data, divided the genus Gopherus into two separate complexes, each with two species. He established a new genus, Scaptochelys, for agassizi and berlandieri, retaining Gopherus for polyphemus and flavomarginatus. They concluded that the mtDNA analysis provides strong support for generic recognition of the two distinct species groups described by Bramble Until a few decades ago, the desert tortoise was widespread at lower elevations throughout the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the U.

In terms of biomass, the tortoise played an important role in the ecosystems. In most areas, numbers have declined dramatically and the extent of populations has been reduced. Most populations are now isolated and low in numbers. Conservation of the desert tortoise is a highly visible and political issue in the U.

Comparative assessment of Azolla pinnata and Vallisneria spiralis in Hg removal from G. Pant Sagar of Singrauli Industrial region, India. The aim of the present work was to monitor the Hg pollution in water and sediments of G. Pant Sagar located in Singrauli Industrial Region, India and to suggest the efficient aquatic plants for its phytoremediation.

The study assessed the comparative potential of a free floating water fern Azolla pinnata and submerged aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis to purify waters polluted by Hg. Six days laboratory experiments have been conducted to mark the percentage removal of Hg at initial concentration of 0. The percentage removal of Hg was higher for A. Likewise, the Hg accumulated in dry mass was much higher for A. The decrease was more prominent in Azolla than Vallisneria.

The results recommended the use of A. How desert varnish forms? Perry, Randall S. Desert varnish is a black, manganese-rich rock coating that is widespread on Earth. The mechanism underlying its formation, however, has remained unresolved. We present here new data and an associated model for how desert varnish forms, which substantively challenges previously accepted models.

We tested both inorganic processes e. The only hypothesis capable of explaining a high water content, the presence of organic compounds, an amorphous silica phase opal-A and lesser quantities of clays than previously reported, is a mechanism involving the mobilization and redistribution of silica. The discovery of silica in desert varnish suggests labile organics are preserved by interaction with condensing silicic acid.

Organisms are not needed for desert varnish formation but Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya, and other organic compounds are passively incorporated and preserved as organominerals. The rock coatings thus provide useful records of past environments on Earth and possibly other planets. Additionally this model also helps to explain the origin of key varnish and rock glaze features, including their hardness, the nature of the "glue" that binds heterogeneous components together, its layered botryoidal morphology, and its slow rate of formation.

A variety of predators, most notably coyotes Canis Iatrans and Common Ravens Corvis corau have been reported to prey on hatchling desert tortoises Emst et al. Here, we report an observation of a hatchling tortoise, fitted with a radiotransmitter, that was preyed upon by native fire ants Solenopsis sp.

The tortoise was alive, but lethargic, and responded little when touched. Eight of 74 other radiomarked hatchlings monitored at Yucca Mountain during were found dead with fire ants on their carcass days after the hatchlings emerged from their nests. It is not known whether those tortoises were killed by ants or were being scavenged when found. While imported fire ants S.

Alabama Acad. However, only 1 of 75 or at worst 9 of 75 was killed by fire ants, suggesting that although fire ants do kill hatchlings, they were not important predators on desert tortoises during this study. Tortoise specimens were deposited at the University of California at Berkeley. The objective of the current study was to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial activities of leaf, bark, flower, and the root of Pongamia pinnata against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain , cytotoxicity against Brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line.

For in vivo study, the plant extract which has shown potent in vitro antimalarial activity was tested against Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. Sequentially crude extracts of methanol polar , chloroform non-polar , hexane non-polar , ethyl acetate non-polar and aqueous polar of dried leaves, bark, flowers and roots of Pongamia pinnata were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus.

The extracts were screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against P. The cytotoxicity studies of crude extracts were conducted against Brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts was carried out by following the standard methods. The chemical injury to erythrocytes due to the plant extracts was checked.

The in vivo study was conducted on P. Out of all the tested extracts, the methanol extract of the bark of Pongamia pinnata had shown an IC 50 value of Because methanolic bark extract of Pongamia pinnata has shown good antimalarial activity in vitro, it was also tested in vivo.

So the extract had exhibited an excellent activity against P. Effect of heat shock on ultrastructure and calcium distribution in Lavandula pinnata L. The effects of heat shock HS on the ultrastructure and calcium distribution of Lavandula pinnata secretory trichomes are examined using transmission electron microscopy and potassium antimonate precipitation.

Heat shock is associated with a decrease in calcium precipitates in the trichomes, while the number of precipitates increases in the mesophyll cells. Prolonged exposure to elevated calcium levels may be toxic to the mesophyll cells, while the lack of calcium in the glands cell may deprive them of the normal protective advantages of elevated calcium levels. The inequality in calcium distribution may result not only from uptake from the transpiration stream, but also from redistribution of calcium from the trichomes to the mesophyll cells.

Lapisan lignin pada kulit biji dapat didegradasi melalui reaksi kimia maupun perlakuan fisik. Variabel bebas dalam penelitian ini adalah konsentrasi asam kuat HNO3, H2SO4, dan HCl, luas pengamplasan, air panas, lama perendaman, sedangkan variabel terikat laju imbibisi pada biji aren. Setiap perlakuan direndam selama 18, 24 dan 36 jam. Biji aren yang diberi perlakuan fisik maupun kimia mengalami pengelupasan kulit biji. Laju imbibisi biji pada perendaman 24 jam lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lama perendaman 18 maupun 36 jam.

Biji aren yang diberi perlakuan fisik dan kimia mulai berkecambah 7 minggu setelah tanam dengan daya kecambah tertinggi pada pemberian HNO3 dan lama perendaman 18 jam. Abstract Arenga pinnata seed has a hard seed coat and lignin that inhibit the absorption of water into the seed. The lignin in the seed coat can be degraded by chemical or physical treatments. The research was conducted to investigate the effect of a strong acid, sanding, and soaking time to the imbibition rate of A.

The independent variables in this research are concentration of the strong acids HNO3, H2SO4, and HCl; sanding, and soaking time, while the dependent variable is the rate of imbibition. Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Salvia pinnata L.

The main components of the essential oils were characterized as bornyl acetate, camphor, camphene, bornyl formate, a -pinene and borneol. The oils were screened for antimicrobial activity by the micro-dilution assay against standard bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and yeast Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

Both of the oils showed antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms. Kalanchoe pinnata inhibits mast cell activation and prevents allergic airway disease. Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Kp have been found effective in models to reduce acute anaphylactic reactions. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Kp and the flavonoid quercetin QE and quercitrin QI on mast cell activation in vitro and in a model of allergic airway disease in vivo.

In contrast, treatment with QI had no effect on these parameters. These findings demonstrate that treatment with Kp or QE is effective in treatment of allergic airway disease, providing new insights to the immunomodulatory functions of this plant. Callogenesis in leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. Its leaves are used as cataplasm to treat headaches and wounds. There is evidence for a hypotensive and anti-inflammatory effect. Techniques of plant tissue culture have been applied to plant species that produce substances likely to be explored in pharmacology, cell suspension being the main technique.

At the industrial level, this method utilizes bioreactors in order to produce secondary metabolites on a large scale. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vitro combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid 2,4-D and benzylaminopurine BA on callus induction in leaf explants of K. Leaf fragments were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 3. The percentage of callus induction and the area of explants covered by callus cells were evaluated.

In the absence of growth regulators, callus induction did not occur, with necrosis of all explants. The most efficient combination was 4. Venkatesh; Sathgatta Z, M. Isolation and identification of compounds from Kalanchoe pinnata having human alphaherpesvirus and vaccinia virus antiviral activity. Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. Crassulaceae is a succulent plant that is known for its traditional antivirus and antibacterial usage.

This work examines two compounds identified from the K. Both compounds are promising targets for synthetic optimization and in vivo study. KPB in particular showed strong inhibition of all viruses tested. Pyridine metabolism and trigonelline synthesis in leaves of the mangrove legume trees Derris indica Millettia pinnata and Caesalpinia crista.

Radioactivity from [carbonylC]nicotinamide supplied exogenously to young leaf disks was recovered in nicotinic acid, nicotinic acid mononucleotide, NAD, NADP, nicotinamide mononucleotide and trigonelline. These mangrove species, especially D. The endogenous trigonelline content in leaves of D. This value is times greater than that in leaves of Glycine max.

There was little short-term effect of and mM NaCl equivalent to ca. Pers under light and temperature levels. Obteve-se para K. Photoproduction of hydrogen by a non-sulphur bacterium isolated from root zones of water fern Azolla pinnata. Singh, S. Banaras Hindu Univ. Centre of Advanced Study in Botany. A photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp.

BHU strain 1 was isolated from the root zone of water fern Azolla pinnata. The bacterium was found to produce hydrogen with potato starch under phototrophic conditions. The immobilized bacterial cells showed sustained hydrogen production with a more than 4-fold difference over free cell suspensions.

The data have been discussed in the light of possible utilization of relatively cheaper raw materials by non-sulphur bacteria to evolve hydrogen. Antidiabetic activity of Kalanchoe pinnata in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by glucose independent insulin secretagogue action. Crassulaceae is used as a traditional medicine worldwide to treat several ailments, including diabetes.

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The Argan Trees Restaurant. Rimba at Ambong Pool Villas. Get to know the area. Rather than sit passively in a boat, thrill-seekers will love to take control of their very own craft on this adrenaline-fueled Langkawi Jet Ski tour, led by a local guide. Write a review. Traveller rating. Selected filters. All reviews nice beach white sand snorkeling gear pretty beach pantai cenang monkeys jetty tourists.

Ominir wrote a review Jan Bengaluru, India 65 contributions 56 helpful votes. Nice beach. Sugary white sand beach with clear blue waters. This was the last island as part of our island hopping tour. One can go for snorkeling here. The snorkeling gear is available for rent. There is very limited option for refreshments. This used to be much cleaner two year before when we first visited.

Read more. Date of experience: May Seongnam 4, contributions helpful votes. Pulau Beras Basah Island was the last stop which had an okay beach. It was basically like Cenang Beach without any of the shops. Although the water wasn't all that clear it was a pleasant spot to play around in the water for an hour. Date of experience: December Helpful Share. Harrison F. Carter wrote a review Dec Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 9, contributions helpful votes.

It's a decent beach. Not as nice as other beaches around Langkawi but it's somewhere new and part of the island hopping tour. Sad to see so much litter. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 29 contributions 8 helpful votes. Clean beach but with monkeys. Good for relaxing and swim with small kids. But no public bathroom or toilet available. However, monkeys are very disturbance.

You need someone to take care of your bags especially if contains food. A good island trip. A good spot to have a relax and fund time with family. It's seems back to 90's period to play with kids. Enjoyed a lot!!! Read more. Date of experience: May Helpful Share. Hamzah Yahya wrote a review Jan Bontang, Indonesia 24 contributions 1 helpful vote. A piece of Diamond. Beras Basah island which is about 2 hours from bontang land, taken by passenger boat with a capacity of 20 to 30 people, became one of the tourist attraction of bontang city.

Date of experience: August Rpurnama wrote a review Jul Bontang, Indonesia 6 contributions 1 helpful vote. Revita P wrote a review Apr Bontang, Indonesia 22 contributions 3 helpful votes. Crowded Beach in weekend. Better to visit this island in weekdays. No regular boat to get here, visitors have to rent from locals.

The nearest port is from Tanjung Laut. Date of experience: March Riza A wrote a review Dec Bontang, Indonesia contributions 10 helpful votes. Small but beautiful island. You can reach this island from Tanjung Laut port. About half an hour trip.

The beach is clean.